The Society for the Encouragement of the Arts
1820-1930 St-Петербург — Petrograd — Leningrad
1820-1882 — Society for the encouragement of [email protected] semicolon in 1882-1917 — Imperial society for the encouragement of arts; in 1917-1929 — all-Russian society for the encouragement of arts
active member: A. H. Benkendorf, A. G. Varnek, M. wielhorsky Yu, S. Yu, M. S. Vorontsov, G. G. Gagarin, H. O. Gunzburg, A. F. and V. P. Golitsyn, p. P. Gnedich, p. p. Golik, V. A. Zhukovsky, P. N. Ignatiev, N. P. Kondakov, V. P. Kochubei, N. V. the puppet master, B. A. Kurakin, A. G. Kushelev-Безбородко, V. P., Langer, N. S. Mordvinov, E. I., Musser, A. F. Orlov, I. F. Paskevich-Эриванский, D. A. Rovinsky, Vladimir Stasov, F. P. Tolstoy, P. Tretyakov, S. S. Uvarov, A. L. Stieglitz, and others.
Members-соучастники: I. K. Aivazovsky, S. F. Alexander, A. K. Jensen, ALB. N. Benoit, . Benois, A. Benoit-Конский, A. A. Bilderling, F. G. Bernstein, A. P. Bogolyubov, A. A. Borisov, A. K. Bruni, . N. Bunin, A. P. Bryullov, B. P. Villevalde, M. J. Willie, E. C. Villiers de l'isle-Адан, E. K. Wrangell, A. F. GAUS, . N. GE, A. I. Gauguin, A. G. Goravsky, D. I. Grimm, M. A. Zichy, F. I. Jordan, C. A. Kavos, . N. Karazin, P. K. Klodt, A. I. Kuindzhi, P. P. Kurian, L. F. Lagorio, E. K. Lipgart, M. O. Mikeshin, L. O. Premazzi, A. I. Rezanov, R. G. Sudkovsky, G. G. Chernetsov, . G. Chernetsov, A. I. Stakenschneider and others.
the Oldest and the largest Russian public charitable arts organization; was initiated by philanthropists of Senator Prince I. A. Gagarin state-секретаря P. I. Kikin, F. F. Schubert, as well as artists-любителей A. I. Dmitriev-Мамонова, L. I. Keel. 30 Nov 1821 they signed the "Basic rules to guide the activities of the society." The first Statute was approved by Nicholas I in 1833; objectives of the Society was announced: "a) to contribute to the success of fine arts in Russia; b) to Encourage and promote the talent of Russian artists".
In 1821 the Society consisted of ten members, from the late 1820-х — over seventy, 1830-70-х the number of active members ranged from eighty to ninety people. Members were mostly patrons from among senior government officials and representatives of the aristocracy: the Chairman of the State Council of Prince V. P. Kochubey, the Governor of the Kingdom of Poland, Prince I. F. Paskevich-Эриванский, General-губернатор St.-Петербурга P. N. Ignatiev, the Governor of the Caucasus, Prince M. S. Vorontsov, the Minister of education, count S. S. Uvarov, chiefs of gendarmes, count A. H. Benkendorf and Prince A. F. Orlov, President of the Free economic society graph N. S. Mordvinov, as well as a number of artists, writers, musicians.
From the first years of existence, the Society was under the patronage of the Emperor, took from the court's annual cash subsidies and lump-sum targeted allowance. In 1827 received the right to "directly submitted notes" to convey to the Emperor information on works of art, worthy of promotion, and distinguished artists. From 1840 chairs of the Committee of the society consisted of members of the Imperial family: the Duke M. Leuchtenberg (1840 to 1851), the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna (1851-1875), Princess E. M. Oldenburgskaya (1878-1914),Grand Duke Peter Nikolaevich (1915-1917). The current work was led by the secretaries of the Committee. This position was held: F. F. Schubert (1820-1833), V. I. Grigorovich (1833-1842). Musin-Пушкин (1853-1856), F. F. Lvov (1856-1864), D. V. Grigorovich (1864-1884). P. Sobko (1884-1900), . Roerich (1901-1906), V. I. Zarubin (1906-1917).
Originally meetings were held in the homes of its members, from 1831 — in the mansion of count N. P. Rumyantsev on the promenade des Anglais, state-секретариате of the Kingdom of Poland on Ekateringofsky Avenue. In 1870 the society received from former Treasury chief-полицмейстерский house on Bolshaya Morskaya street.
the Activity of OPH has been extremely extensive and has affected virtually all spheres of artistic life. In the first years of existence played a big part in the production of lithographic editions, as well as reproductions of Russian and Western European masters: it spent a third of the annual budget of the company (6 500 rubles). Orders OPH worked with artists such as K. P. Jensen, A. P. Bryullov, K. P. Bryullov, M. N. Vorob'ev, S. F. Galaktionov, K. F. Sabat, A. V. Tyranov, G. G. Chernetsov, . G. Chernetsov, S. P. Shiflyar, I. S. Sekowski. Was released edition: "Projects of exemplary churches with patterns, details and instructions", "Costumes of Georgia from nature" (both — 1821), "St.-Петербурга and the surrounding area" (1821-1826), "Portraits of famous Russians" (1822), "images of famous events and deeds of the national history in engravings, lithographs and metallography" (1824) and others.
Under the auspices of the society was published a number of books and monographs for young artists: "the Art of looking at art", Mirizzi (1827), "Anatomy for painters and sculptors" Medical (1828), "figure studies" A. P. Sapozhnikov (1834), "Guide to the knowledge of the fine arts" (1824).
was Issued the periodical "Journal des Beaux-arts" (1823-1825; under the editorship of V. I. Grigorovich), "the Art newspaper" (1836-1841; edited by N. V. Kukolnik, then — A. N. Strugovschikov), "Art and art industry" (1898-1901; edited by N. P. Sobko), "Art treasures of Russia" (1901-1908; edited by A. N. Benoit, from 1903 — A. V. Prakhov).
Substantial funds of the Society in the first decades was headed for financial support and encouragement to young artists. Benefits of EPF received by the students of IAH A. A. ... , V. V. Vereshchagin, V. P. Vereshchagin, A. G. Goravsky, F. S. Zhuravlev, M. K. Klodt, M. P. Klodt, P. K. Klodt, I. N. Archaeology, V. P. Creitan, L. F. Lagorio, F. K. Lemokh, K. E. Makowski, L. I. Solomatkin, A. V. Tyranov, K. D. Flavitsky, P. P. Chistyakov, T. G. Shevchenko, I. S. Sekowski and others. EPF pensioners abroad was A. P. Bryullov, K. P. Bryullov, A. A. Ivanov, K. A. Trutovsky, G. G. Chernetsov, . G. Chernetsov. For the first 35 years of various kinds of patronage were 1290 artists, while the charity spent over 220 thousand rubles. In the 1860-е was organized by the open annual competitions in painting and the applied arts, the results of which was awarded a nominal cash prize: them. V. P. Botkin (genre painting), Stroganov (landscape), P. S. Stroganov (molding), M. G. Gajewski (historical genre), Princess E. M.Oldenburg (woodcut), I. P. Balashov (decorative painting), V. L. Naryshkin (wood carving). Among the first laureates of the awards were V. G. Perov, M. P. Klodt, L. Kamenev (— 1865), I. I. Shishkin, V. M. Maksimov (1866), M. K. Klodt, A. I. Meshchersky (1867), F. A. Vassiliev, A. I. Korzukhin, A. K. Savrasov (1868), Ilya Repin, V. E. Makovsky (1872).
In 1826, the Society organized a permanent exhibition-продажу artistic works. From 1837 regularly conducted art lottery among its members, and staged auctions.
In 1857, the Statute was approved by the society, in accordance with which introduced the status of "member-соучастника" without the right to vote and with a relatively small membership fee: 10 rubles a year, instead of 200 rubles for full members. It is possible to expand and democratize Society. In 1858 the society enrolled 189 members-соучастников, by the early 1880-х their number exceeded 600. The number of valid members to the last third of the nineteenth century increased slightly and did not exceed 140. As members of-соучастников in the society included many artists and architects.
From 1857 run was OPKh Drawing school, which was previously assumed to close out-за cuts in government spending. The Directors of the school were F. F. Lvov (1860-1864), M. V. deacons (1864-1881), E. A. Sabaneev (1881-1905), . Roerich (1906). In 1889 was opened a suburban branch of the school (Shlisselburg and Narva treatises), designed for poor children. In 1888 entered the society for graduates of the school trip to Russia, from 1901 — trips abroad (annually to two graduates).
At the beginning of the twentieth century the school had organized workshops: weaving needlework (1908), icon painting (1909), ceramics and painting on porcelain (1910), minting (1913). The faculty in different years were included R. R. Bach, I. Ya. Bilibin, F. F. Buchholz, V. V. mate, K. K. Wroblewski, A. I. Korzukhin, I. N. Archaeology, V. P. Creitan, E. K. Lipgart, A. A. Pisemsky, A. A. Rylov, . S. Samokish, A. I. Curd, A. R. Eberling and others.
In 1870 the building on Bolshaya Morskaya street became the property of the Society, at the initiative of the Secretary of the society by D. V. Grigorovich it was organized Artistic-промышленный Museum, which became the collection of objects of applied art, podnebenny V. L. Naryshkin and Alexander II granted the Emperor Society. To this collection were attached products of the Imperial porcelain factory, donated by the Empress Maria Alexandrovna and private acquisition Companies. Directors of the Museum was D. V. Grigorovich (1870-1899), M. P. Botkin (1899-1914), p. P. Gnedich (1914-1917), S. P. Yaremich (1917).
the society also provided its facilities for the Association of traveling art exhibitions, the First ladies ' art circle, Society of Russian watercolors, St.-Петербургского society of artists.
In 1882, it adopted a new Charter of the company. To the objectives specified in the first Charter, added: "to promote art education among artisans and in General to contribute to the development of taste for the elegant in all sectors of society." The Charter defines the status and relationship of all components of society: schools with workshops, the Museum and library permanentexhibition. The capital of the society in 1900 was more than 200 thousand rubles.
In March 1917, held an emergency meeting of the society, which name was changed ("all-Russian society of encouragement of arts") and also elected a new Committee headed by Vice-председателем L. F. Lagorio (in November 1918 the Committee was chaired by p. P. Gnedich, in October 1919 — P. I. Neradovsky, in early 1928 — . A. Sergeev). The Committee included V. J. Agarunov, ALB. N. Benoit, V. Warriors, M. V. Dobroklonsky, D. I. Mitrokhin, F. F. Notgaft, I. A. Orbeli, B. K. Roerich, . Roerich, S. N. Troinitsky, V. A. Sawinski, S. R. Ernst, S. P. Yaremich. In December 1919 approved the new Charter, which according to-новому formulated the purpose of the society: "to promote the flourishing of artistic creativity in Russia, which is achieved by the device of art exhibitions — constant and periodicals, lectures, acquisitions of outstanding works of art on the subject of placing them in museums; contests, auctions, and publishing".
In April 1918 by order of the CPC, the capital of the society was cancelled. The drawing school is administered FROM the people's Commissariat. Having lost interest, the Society found a source of income in the organization of auctions and the permanent exhibition of art objects and antiquities. Items of special value was acquired by the Committee in the property of the society for donation to public museums. Only in 1917-1918 a total of 46 auctions, which allowed us to identify many rarities and save them from the export abroad.
With 1924, the Society was administered by the Russian Academy of history of material culture. In January 1924 was adopted by the last Charter of the society. In the same year the nationalized and transferred to the Fund of the Academy Museum (in 1929, his collection was divided for state museums). In April 1926 the building was nationalized Companies. 17 Sep 1929, was formed by the liquidation Commission. February 18, 1930 the Society was abolished as "inappropriate to the spirit of the time".
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