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Kramskoy Ivan Nikolaievich

Kramskoi Ivan

May 27, 1837 (Sloboda New Hundred Voronezh) - March 24, 1887 (St. Petersburg)

painter, graphic artist, sculptor, art critic and art theorist.

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Крамской, Иван Николаевич


Kramskoi Ivan

May 27, 1837 (Sloboda New Hundred Voronezh) - March 24, 1887 (St. Petersburg)

painter, graphic artist, sculptor, art critic and art theorist.

born in the family of the clerk of the City Duma. He studied at the four-year Ostrogozh district school, where he graduated in 1850. Prior to 1853 served as a clerk in the City Duma. Apparently, he took private lessons in painting at the Voronezh artists. In 1853 came as a retoucher and watercolors to Kharkov photographer J. P. Danilevsky, accompanied him on trips in Central Russia and Little Russia. In 1857 got a job in a photographic studio JF Alexander in St. Petersburg. In the same year joined the IAH, was engaged in the class of historical painting in Markov. During the period of training was repeatedly awarded various medals: in 1858 he was awarded a small silver medal for drawing from nature in 1860 - a small silver medal for the track "Dying Lena" (the novel by Alexander Pushkin's "Eugene Onegin") , in 1861 - a large silver medal for the sketch from nature, in 1863 - a small gold medal for the program now "Moses exudes water from the rock. In 1862-1863 was brought to the creation of murals Markov main dome of the Temple of Christ the Savior in Moscow, for whom executed more than 50 graphic designs and 8 cartons full size. At the same time worked as a retoucher in the studio of the photographer AI Denier.

autumn of 1863 led the so-called "revolt of fourteen" by filing a petition to the Board of IAH on the resolution of the free choice of subjects for the competition for a gold medal. After receiving a negative answer, refused to participate in the contest and left the Academy with the rank of class artist of 2 nd degree. In the same year he became one of the founding of St. Petersburg Artel artists. In 1863-1869 he taught at the Drawing School Society for the Promotion of artists, from the late 1860's gave lessons in painting and drawing members of the royal family.

Worked monumental and religious paintings. In 1865 participated in the creation of the iconostasis of the church in the village Konchozero near Petrozavodsk, considered a model of church painting of the time. Since 1866, together with BB Wenig and NA Koshelev painted the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. In 1870, commissioned by SP Sinel'nikova completed nine images for the Trinity Church Ostrogozh County Voronezh province, in 1883-1885, wrote the icons for the Russian embassy church in Copenhagen.

He turned to etching and lithography, engraving reproduced in some of his paintings (Russian explorer engraving DA Rovinsky in the Details dictionary Russian engravers XVI - XIX centuries "(St. Petersburg, 1895) was described more than twenty engravings and lithographs Kramskoy). He became one of the organizers in 1871, the Society of Russian akvafortistov. In 1883 worked on illustrations for the edition of the Sacred coronation of the Emperor Alexander III. 15 May Day, 1883 ».

In 1869, for the portraits of Princess EA Vasilchikova, Count DA Tolstoi, MB Tulinova was awarded the title of academician. In 1870, became one of the founding members of TPHV repeatedly elected as a board member of the Association. In 1871 joined the Moscow Society of Art Lovers. In 1872, renounced the title of professor IAH, nevertheless took part in the development of a new Charter Academy (along with AP Bogolyubov, KF Gunom, NN Ge and FI Jordan, AI Rezanov).

In 1869 traveled to Europe, visited Berlin, Dresden, Antwerp, Paris, where he studied museum collections. Repeatedly visited at home, in the Voronezh province. In 1871 he went to the village wanting Kharkov province, thence to Yalta to the artist FA Vasilyev. In 1876 traveled to Italy and France, in 1878, visited the World Exhibition in Paris. In 1884 he lived in the south of France in Menton.

in 1887 in St. Petersburg held a memorial exhibition of the artist. Retrospective exhibition of works Kramskogo were organized in 1837 in Moscow and Leningrad in 1967 in Voronezh, in 1987-1988 in Leningrad, Voronezh and Moscow.

Kramskoi - outstanding artist of the second half of the XIX century, whose name is linked with the flowering of Russian realistic school. He has successfully worked in a variety of genres: creating portraits, paintings of historical and philosophical content, landscapes, compositions on everyday topics, worked in the field of religious painting. Veliko its importance as a public leader and theoretician of art. In his works the artist defended the idea of art not only reflects, but also morally transform the surrounding world.

Kramskoi created a gallery of portraits of outstanding contemporaries: FA Vasilyev (1871), Leo Tolstoy (1873), IA Goncharova (1874), N. Nekrasov (1877), Pavel Tretyakov (1876), Saltykov-Shchedrin (1879), I. Shishkin, SP Botkin (both - 1880) and others. Salient features of the portrait of the master's songs are expressive simplicity, clarity of the figure, the thoroughness of the cut-off modeling, the depth of psychological characteristics. Just recreating the look, especially the spiritual and psychological make-up, the richness and intensity of the inner life of the models in their portraits Kramskoi embodied both ethical and aesthetic ideals, perceptions of the man-citizen. Democratic views of the artist found the brightest expression in portraits of peasants, reflected the spiritual richness and inherent dignity of 'man of the people, and sometimes ripening in it a social protest ( "forester", 1874, "Mina Moiseyev, 1882," Peasant with bridle " , 1883).

In its central product - "Christ in the Desert" (1872) Kramskoy treated religious themes in the moral and philosophical terms, giving it the actual public response. In an effort to enhance the ideological and artistic content of images, the artist created works that stand on the brink of a portrait and a thematic picture ( "Nekrasov, during" Last Song "," 1877-78, "Unknown", 1883, "Inconsolable Grief", 1884). They are distinguished by interest in the disclosure of complex movements of the soul, character and destiny. In some recent works manifest features of salon art.

Kramskogo works are in many museum collections, including the State Tretyakov Gallery, State Russian Museum, the Scientific Research Museum of Russia Academy of Arts, GMII im. Pushkin, the State Literary Museum, Kiev museum of Russian art and others.

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