- The icon of the mother of God Cinova with scenes of the life of the 19th century
- Ai auction
- Selling (making) icons from the masters of Zlatoust
- Painting, oil on canvas, 1915, Ballistica.
- Could you tell me the icon
- Felix-Lev Zbarsky
- Картины, атрибуция и оценка
- Of The Holy Virgin
- Икона Святой Никита Столпник, оценка с возможной продажей
- F. Z. Zakharov
The most expensive paintings of Russian artists
ARTinvestment.RU 16 ноября 2017
Rating auction results of works of Russian art
- $86,88 million mark Rothko. Orange, red, yellow (1961)
- $60,00 million Kazimir Malevich. Suprematist composition (1916)
- $41,8 million Wassily Kandinsky. Painting with white lines (1913)
- $28,16 million for Chaim Soutine. Beef carcass (approx. 1923)
- $18,59 million Alexei Jawlensky. Shokko in wide-brimmed hat (approx. 1910)
- $14,85 million Marc Chagall. Anniversary (1923)
- $14,51 million Valentin Serov. Portrait Of Maria Tsetlin. 1910
- $12,09 million Nicholas Roerich. Madonna Laboris (Proceedings Of The Mother Of God. 1931)
- $10,88 million Natalia Goncharova. Flowers (approx. 1912)
- $10,84 million Nicholas Feshin. Little cowboy
- $9,42 million Nicolas de Stael. Reclining Nude (1954)
- $8,48 million Tamara de Lempicka. Dream (Rafaela on a green background. 1927)
- $7,43 million Ilya Repin. Paris cafe (1875)
- $7,33 million Konstantin Somov. Rainbow (1927)
- $7,25 million Ilya Mashkov. Still life with fruit (1910)
- $7,07 million Kustodiev. The trooper (1923)
- $6,34 million Vasily Polenov. Who is without sin among you? (1908)
- $6,27 million Yuri Annenkov. Portrait of Alexander Nikolaevich Tikhonov (1922)
- $6,15 million Vasily Vereshchagin. The pearl mosque in Agra (1870-1880)
- $5,85 million Zinaida Serebryakova. Sleeping girl (1923)
- $5,83 million Ilya Kabakov. Beetle (1982)
- $5,56 million Alexander Yakovlev. Portrait of Vasily Shuhaeva in his Studio (1928)
- $5,37 million Vladimir Baranov-Россине. Rhythm (Adam and eve. 1910)
- $5,34 million Ivan Aivazovsky. The American ships at the rock of Gibraltar (1873)
- $5,02 million Vladimir Borovikovsky. Portrait of Countess Lubov Ilyinichna Kusheleva, née Bezborodko (1803)
- $4,5 million Alexander Rodchenko. Design № 95 (1919)
- $4,34 million Sonia Delaunay. Market at Minho (1915)
- $4,30 million Mikhail Nesterov. The vision of young Bartholomew (1922)
- $4,20 million Konstantin Makovsky. From the everyday life of the Russian boyar in the late XVII century (1868)
- $4,05 million Vera Rokhlin. Gamblers (1919)
- $3,97 million Pavel Kuznetsov. East of the city. Bukhara (1912)
- $3,72 million Boris Grigoriev. A shepherd from the hills (1920)
the rankings were made according to three criteria:
- To participate with only public auction results.
- belonging to the Russian artists was determined by place of birth. Born in the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union — mean, Russian artist, without looking at ethnicity and reductions in the use fate. For example, the fact that Kandinsky in different years were citizenship and Russian, and German, and he died with the French, is not a reason to doubt that the Russian artist.
- Rule: one artist — one picture. That is the situation, when, strictly speaking, all the first place, that would take work Mark Rothko, allowed: leave only the most expensive work, and all other results for paintings by this artist ignored.
the basis of the rating is taken results taking into account the buyer's premium (Buyers Premium), expressed in dollars (the figures shown in European auctions, i.e. in pounds or euros, converted into dollars at the exchange rate on the trade date). Therefore, the ratings did not "Spanish flu" Natalia Goncharova, sold 2 Feb 2010 for £6,43 million or painting "View of Constantinople and the Bosphorus" by Aivazovsky, for which April 24, 2012-го paid £3.23 million, Yes, in the transaction currency, i.e. pounds, they are more expensive paintings, which took place in the ranking, but with the dollar they were not lucky.
One of the most enigmatic artists of our time. His life path like a walking contradiction — in creativity, actions, gestures... Considered one of the ideologists and, of course, a key figure in American abstract expressionism, Rothko could not stand when his work was called abstract. In the past, who knew what life is hand to mouth, he defiantly returned to customers absolutely fantastic in terms of current money advance, leaving himself almost completely finished the job. Waiting for your success and your ability to earn a living by painting for almost fifty years, he repeatedly denied people who wish to destroy his career. At least the socialist in the soul, who shared the ideas of Marx, hostile attitude to the rich and wealth, Rothko became in the end the author of the most expensive paintings in the world, which actually turned into the attribute of high status of their owners. (No joke, record "White center", sold for $65 million, came from the Rockefeller family.) Dreamed of the recognition of the mass audience, was ultimately the Creator of paintings-настоящему clear until now, only a circle of intellectuals and connoisseurs. Finally, an artist who sought conversation with the Lord through the music of his canvases, the artist, whose work became a Central element of the design the Church of all religions, finished way of life absolutely desperate godless act...the
Rothko, remembering the pale of settlement and the Cossacks may have wondered what they are proud of also as Russian artists. However, enough anti-Semitism in America 1930-х — is not accidental artist "cut" generic name rothkowitz. But we call it Russian is not without reason. To start — by birth. The Latvian Dvinsk, Daugavpils present at the time of the birth of Marcus Rotkovicha — is part of Russia and will remain so until the collapse of the Empire, until 1918. However, the revolution Rothko won't see. In 1913, the boy is taken somewhere in the United States, the family moved to Portland, Oregon. That is, childhood and adolescence were held in Russia, there was formed the life perception, vision. Except that here he was born, with Russia Rothko link, note, and philosophical themes and conflicts. It is known that he valued the works of Dostoevsky. And even vices, which Rothko indulged in the world are associated why-то with Russian. Depression in the West call why-то "Russian disease." That's not an argument, of course, but one more stroke to the wholeness of nature, Russian artist.
pioneering discoveries in painting Rothko was a long 15 years. The past through a figurative Hobbies, including surrealism and figurative expressionism, in the mid-1940-х it extremely simplified structure of her paintings, limiting the expressive means of several colorful blocks that make up the composition. The intellectual basis of his work — is almost always a matter of interpretation. Rothko usually did not give direct answers, counting on the complicity of the viewer in understanding the work.The only thing he definitely counted on, — on the emotional work of the viewer. His paintings are not for recreation, not for relaxation and not for "visual massage." They are designed for empathy. Some see them as Windows to look into the soul of the viewer, the other — door to another world. There is a view (perhaps closest to the truth), that his color field — is a metaphorical image of God.
the Decorative power of "color fields" is due to a number of special techniques used by Rothko. His paintings do not suffer massive RAM — high thin dies-кромки in the color of the canvas. The edges of the paintings the artist deliberately tinted in a gradient to a picturesque field of lost borders. Fuzzy boundaries internal squares — is also a reception method without the use of contrast to create the effect of jitter, the apparent overlap of blocks of color, pulsation spots, like flickering light of electric lamps. This mild dissolution in color was particularly good oil, before moving Rothko on opaque acrylic in the late sixties. And found the effect of electric surge increases, if you look at the pictures at close range. According to the artist the three-meter canvases the viewer is optimally viewed from a distance of half a meter.
Today the paintings of Rothko — pride of any known Museum of modern art. So, in English the Tate gallery has a room of Rothko in which they live nine paintings from those that were written under contract with a restaurant Four Seasons. It was quite revealing for the character of Rothko history. In 1959 the artist on the recommendation addressed to the owners of the fashionable restaurant "seasons", which opened in an unusual new-йоркском skyscraper Seagram Building (by company name — manufacturer of alcohol). The amount of the contract in terms of today's money amounted to nearly $3 million —, a very substantial fee even held a recognized artist, which at the time was already Rothko. However, when the work was almost finished, Rothko returned unexpectedly advance and refused to hand it to the customer. Among the main reasons for the sudden act of biographers considered the reluctance to please the ruling class and rich to entertain at dinner. There is also a view that Rothko was upset that his paintings will not see the rank and file employees working in the building. However, the latest version looks too romantic.
After nearly 10 years of canvases prepared for the Four Seasons, Rothko donated to the Tate Gallery in London. In a bitter twist of fate, on February 25, 1970, in the day when the boxes with pictures reached the English port, the artist was found in his Studio dead — with severed veins and (perhaps for guarantees) a huge dose of sleeping pills in the stomach.
Today the work Rothko is experiencing another wave of sincere interest. Workshops, open exhibitions, published monographs. On the banks of the Daugava river, the home of the artist, the monument.
the works of Rothko on the market are not extremely rare (as, for example, the paintings of Malevich). Every year at auction alone, not counting the graphics, exhibited approximately 10-15 pieces. That is not the deficit, but we pay millions and tens of millions of dollars. And these prices are hardly accidental. Rather, it is a tribute to his innovation, the desire to discover new semantic layersand to join a creative phenomenon of one of the most mysterious Russian artists.
may 8, 2012 at the auction of postwar and contemporary art Christie's painting "Orange, red, yellow" in 1961 went for $86,88 million including Commission. The work comes from the collection of the Pennsylvania philanthropist David Pincus. Work size of 2.4 × 2.1 meters, David and his wife Gerry bought at Marlborough Gallery, and then permanently gave up its lease to the Philadelphia art Museum. Painting "Orange, red, yellow" was not only the most expensive work of the artist of Russian origin, but also the most expensive piece of postwar and contemporary art sold at public auction.
2. $60,00 million Kazimir Malevich. Suprematist composition (1916)
Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (1878-1935), of course, enters into the five of the most brilliant revolutionaries of twentieth-century art in the world. Philosopher, innovator, developer of new theoretical approaches, the ideologist of Suprematism, which became the hallmark of Russia in the international art arena. The work of Malevich — pride of the best museums in the world and a dream of many collectors.
the Crown research Malevich can be called the work "Black square" in 1915 (in the Tretyakov gallery holds one of four surviving versions). Thing high metaphorical value of —-end picture, the end of painting, the starting point, the requirement to develop the project of the future. Supremus, on the idea of the Creator, is the highest stage of vanguard, is able to afford geometric conciseness of expression. In the twenties, Malevich extended his philosophical system in the applied field: Suprematism was the basis of excellence in design and architecture. Malevich was implemented and how the teacher who discovered the talent in his numerous disciples, who kept devotion to his ideas even in the face of persecution. In art history includes periods of work in the UNOVIS ("Association of affirmative new art", Vitebsk — Petrograd (Leningrad), 1919-1922), in Ginhuke (State Institute of artistic culture, 1923).
the Late 1920-х was marked by a period of repression against the developers ideas of artistic avant-garde. In fact, the "school of Malevich" was broken up, the Malevich was arrested. In 1927, the artist managed during a foreign trip to cover a part of the work in Berlin and are expected to save their ideas from the ban and oblivion. Malevich died in 1935. But his best work for decades was buried in the vaults of Soviet museums. You can see them only making a few acquaintances in the Museum environment. Nevertheless, the specialists and collectors-подвижников (for example, George Kostaki) information about the ideas of Malevich, we can say, the underground paths distributed in circles of the Soviet intelligentsia and influenced the artistic language of representatives of unofficial art, artists-шестидесятников.
the Appearance at a public auction work as high class as the "Suprematist composition", — event is not just exclusive, butsingle. Work of this level can appear on the auction only from museums. That is exactly what happened in recent years. The Suprematist paintings of Malevich was otsuzhivalis lawyers heirs through restitution. November 3, 2008, "Suprematist composition" (1916) was sold at Sotheby's for $60 million. This is the first of five paintings that were placed at the disposal of the heirs of Malevich from the Dutch Stedelijk Museum again as a result of a court decision on the restitution dispute. read More about the fate of these works can be read here. According to market specialists, the price of this work of Malevich could be even higher. Unfortunately, the time of bidding was in the period of the unfolding global financial crisis, when there was no certainty either in its depth or duration. It is not excluded, what exactly therefore, the purchase of the masterpiece of Malevich took place in a relatively conservative mode, at a price close to the guaranteed rate advance is made by the foreign buyer.
3. $41,8 million Wassily Kandinsky. Painting with white lines (1913)
Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) — recognized Russian artist of world importance. In fact, truly innovative ideas have identified one of the main vectors of development of fine arts in the XX century. Kandinsky is considered the "father of abstraction" — artist who was among the first to come to this opening and gave it a theoretical justification. In the beginning of the century the emergence of abstraction was already predetermined. "Deconstruction" of the classic principles of art went in all directions, put thousands of artistic experimentation. So the idea was in the air, and several European artists moved steadily to her parallel paths, being who step in, who are just one step away from non-figurative painting. "Copyright certificate" can claim too many. So there's all accept a single date of invention of abstraction. "Breakdowns" in abstraction can be seen in the paintings of Kandinsky 1908-1909 years, but it was Kandinsky improvisation from 1910, according to some experts, become a turning point in the history of art. In some works this year was finally broken relationship with figurative painting, removed the last hints of recognizable imagery, there was a pure abstraction. Not that parting with figurative imagery in the work of Kandinsky occurred irrevocably and forever (later he came back to her), but the Rubicon has been crossed in the ideology of art. Now, a man, 30 years cool deploy their lives who quit successfully developing a career as a lawyer and decided to become an artist, already 44 years have redirected the river and the world's artistic process.
At the London auction of impressionist and modern Sotheby's 21 June 2017 record auction prices for works by Vasily Kandinsky was beaten twice in the evening. First record set colorful "Murnau. Landscape with green house," written by Kandinsky in 1909. In the work, and feel evident since the transitionartist from figurative to abstraction. This is one of the best early works of Kandinsky, remained in a private collection since 1920-х years and never exhibited at the auction. Therefore, the record $26.4 million — $3 million more than the previous most expensive work of the "Tough and flexible" 1935 — was quite natural.
However, he lasted only six lots. The supporters were even more rare Kandinsky — "Painting with white line" 1913, when-то hanging in the Tretyakov gallery. On 13 minutes, stretched the battle of the rates between the four contenders for the job. The estimate was not published in the directory, but rumored to have been in excess of $35 million. the Final result — stunning $41.8 million (£33 million in the transaction currency). This record is sure to be long lasting, because of works by Kandinsky on a comparable level waiting at auction for decades. The last time it was a "Fugue" (1914) at Sotheby's auction in 1990. Her record of $20.9 million lasted for 22 years (until 2012). And since then, only five works (including "Painting with white lines" and "Landscape with green house") has managed this record to overcome.
"the Picture with white lines" refers to the most innovative, the most valuable period in the work of Kandinsky. In 1913 the artist wrote so many abstract masterpieces, now adorn the leading museums as in any other year. "Painting with white lines" Kandinsky repeatedly selected for their important exhibitions in Germany and in Russia. It was written in Munich, but in 1914, with the outbreak of the First world war, the Russian artist had to return Home, taking with him important works. "Painting with white lines" in 1919 was bought from Kandinsky, the Museum of painterly culture in the framework of the program for the dissemination of avant-garde art in the new Russia. Like hundreds of other works of Russian avant-garde "Painting with white lines" waiting for distribution to one of regional museums. The choice fell on the Penza art gallery. Later, the picture returned to Moscow, in Tretyakov gallery. And here is the next milestone in the history of its existence surrounded by speculation: in 1974, the work of the state Museum bought the collector Wilhelm Hack (Wilhelm Hack) from Cologne. According to one version, the painting of Kandinsky was exchanged for available hack Lenin's letter. Whatever it was, "Painting with white lines" all these years kept in a private collection, and the auction house, having caught it on sale, tore a guaranteed jackpot.
4. $28,16 million for Chaim Soutine. Beef carcass (approx. 1923)
Chaim Soutine (1893/1894–1943) — Russian artist of world importance, one of the most significant representatives of the Paris school. This name for a long time was little known in his homeland. Soutine — a native of Sochi, is now in the city, and then the Jewish town, 27 km from Minsk, the tenth child in a family of tailors. The art of Soutine is a gift opened early, but, as often happens, unfortunately, in the wrong place at the wrong time. The boy began to draw what I saw around, and in the Orthodox Jewish tradition it is forbidden to depict people and animals. For that he got from the villagers. According to legend, Chaim onceset out to paint a Rabbi. For this teenager had to be very tight, but the Rabbi probably was a man more broad-minded: he gave Chaim 25 rubles (a very considerable sum in those days) and was sent to study away from Sochi. Already turned away to Paris, where Soutine arrived at the age of 20 years. But Paris, Moscow does not believe in tears. The mid-1910-х — years of poverty, insecurity, and painful illness, however, the surviving evidence, years of personal fulfillment and creative happiness. Around — friends. Modigliani, and Lipschitz, freedom and bespechnosti. Booze. Pushkin, outdoor cutino his friend Oscar Meshaninov. Then it became easier: there were the first patrons, customers, lovers. There is evidence that the work of Soutine bought even the master Picasso. But of course, imagine that after 100 years the canvases of the artist will fight millionaires, it was impossible.
In 1943, Soutine with a fake passport is hiding in Paris. Worsened ulcer. Jew. The city was occupied by the Nazis. Even with a fake passport in the hospital dangerous. Waited until the last minute, but when secretly brought to the hospital it was already too late: peritonitis. The legend that the coffin Soutine was one only his colleague and fan of — Picasso. Friends of the artist to participate in the procession was fatal.
Today, we can confidently identify subjects that are most in demand among collectors. Who-то not without reason, would think that composition with bovine carcasses, dead poultry, distorted faces on the portraits of old women, beggars, the common people look repulsive. But in these things where there is room for the patient sulinskogo red, most strongly expressed his vivid expressionist talent. Historians suggest that these topics Soutine brought out memories of his hometown. Such he remembered the faces of those people, one life: "Once I saw the village butcher cuts off the head of a bird and drain the blood. I wanted to scream, but a happy expression on his face, my scream stuck in my throat. I just feel there is this Creek. Then, as a child, I drew a rough portrait of my teacher, I tried to get rid of this scream inside me, but in vain. When I painted the carcass of the bull, I'm on-прежнему tried to release him." So it's kind of a return similar to the return of then. Another source of inspiration for his paintings of carcasses and poultry were the canvases of the Old Masters, particularly Rembrandt favorite.
in 2007, the most expensive work of Chaim Soutine was foot portrait of "the Man in the red scarf" in 1921, sold at Sotheby's for £7.8 million ($of 15.34 million). The balance of power on the market of the artist has changed the Christie's auction may 8, 2013, where the painting "the Little pastry chef" was sold for $18 million (without Commission — $16 million). The last sale that allowed Chaim soutenu to step 5-го 3-е place in our ranking, was held on 11 may 2015: at Christie's auction in new-Йорке painting "Bovine carcase" ("Le Bœuf"), written around 1923, was sold for $28,165 million (estimate $20-30 million).
In the period from 1923 to 1925, Soutine painted a series of nine paintings of bull carcasses. First, he wrote still lifes in Cannes, and later — in a new spacious Paris Studio, which he failed to remove the money from the sale of paintings by its new patron, albert Barnes. Soutinethe carcass was hung on the wall and wrote still lifes. And even when the meat has started to deteriorate, he would stop, and only asked the assistant to drive away flies. Neighbors naturally began to complain of the stench and called the police. In the first version, Soutine tried to explain to police officers how the art is more important than olfactory pleasures. Another — at the sight of people in uniform, which he always was afraid, he hid himself, leaving to deal with the police to your assistant. After this incident, the carcass had to be soaked in formaldehyde. When the paintings were finished, Soutine, fearing to poison local dogs, buried objects of his still lifes into the ground. To date, only three of the nine paintings of carcasses are in private hands, and the one that went for a record amount, is the largest and most expressive.
5. $18,59 million Alexei Jawlensky. Shokko in wide-brimmed hat (approx. 1910)
Alexey Georgievich Jawlensky (1864-1941) and Vasily Kandinsky occupy adjacent places in the price ranking of Russian art — and it is more than symbolic. To foreign connoisseurs of art these figures are comparable to his contributions to the arts, in its role as the ideology of expressionism and abstractionism. Another thing is that in Russia, Kandinsky is represented in the best museums of the country, and a native of Torzhok Alexei Jawlensky is known mostly to specialists, collectors and connoisseurs. In the museums of his stuff can only be seen on rare imported exhibitions, made up of exhibits in foreign museums and private collections (such exhibition was in 2000 in the Russian Museum) and gallery shows (work Yavlenskogo like to show the participants of the Salons). And of course, the Russian name is remembered in the record the reports from the leading auction sites.
Alexei Jawlensky left Russia long before the revolution and did not, as Kandinsky or Chagall, came from Germany to support progressive ideas in art for the sake of the interests of the proletariat. Because in our museums, and it works, but the role of the artist in this case is not diminished. There are versions that abstraction of his famous colleague "the Blue rider" and "New art society in Munich" Kandinsky came under the influence of a number of ideas Jawlensky. Hallmark Jawlensky began his thematic cycles "Meditation" (the prototypes of faces emerges from the cross), "Abstract head" (suspended-портретные expression) and "Mystical head". Creative Luggage Jawlensky gained in his old age, fell under the steamroller of persecution of the Nazi "degenerate art", so the last few years (Jawlensky died in 1941, three years before Kandinsky), the artist lived in the status of prohibited.
Famous painting "Shokko in wide-brimmed hat" — picture of another era. A masterpiece of expressionism 1910-х, thing noticeable erosion of the figurative component before step into abstraction. The picture is undoubtedly high artistic and historical value, "Shokko" — is also an amazing example of an investor's luck. The fact that this case was re-selling masterpiece, and recent thatallows to assess the dynamics of growth rates, not by appealing to ancient times. It is known that the previous owner purchased the "Shokko" at Sotheby's in 2003 for $8.3 million Price 2008 — £9.4 million, i.e. $to 18.59 million, 2.2 times more. The owner made this picture for approximately $10.3 million over five years. The case is not a typical, not so expensive, but about the uniqueness of the question. In General this is an illustration of how able to appreciate masterpieces, especially against the background of growing interest in the work of the Creator.
6. $14,85 million Marc Chagall. Anniversary (1923)
Marc Zaharovich Chagall (1887-1985) — born in Vitebsk, the artist-авангардист, famed Russian art on both sides of the ocean, which became a national pride not only in our country but also France, the United States and Israel. The distinctive art style of Chagall — is a special expressionism, usually involving elements of naive art and the techniques of surrealism, as well as the layers relevant to the period of creation of the work of fashion trends (e.g., cubism).
In the early XX century Chagall — disciple Yuri pen, Leon Bakst, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky and Nicholas Roerich. After the revolution, it is included in the cycle of becoming an advanced art, became the Commissioner of the art workshops. Then — disappointment, emigration, a huge success in the West (France, USA) and a long period of silence in Russia. Oppressive information restrictions were lifted by 1970-м, mater Chagall even came to Moscow for her solo exhibition at the Tretyakov gallery, which holds his best work, including the Vitebsk period.
the Work of Chagall unlike Soutine and Rothko was well known in our country in the late Soviet period publications in albums and journals. It is not surprising that for the current generation of Russian collectors and investors the works of Chagall are prestigious to purchase. Moreover, subject to relatively simple rules for buying safe and justified from the point of view of investments. So, with questions of authenticity helps the Committee Chagall, famous for his tough attitude to counterfeit. Given the abundance of fakes, the conclusion of the Committee is a necessary condition to work in General received the full-market status. The price of the work, besides the usual parameters, it affects the period of creation. Original works by Chagall at auctions very much — is a plus. But the investor should note that things the end of 1960-х — early 1970-х years, which often put up for auction, — is working 80-летнего artist. Let them remain faithful to their good ideas, are technically flawless, but without the old dreaminess and energy expressionist-новатора, and understandably so. So usually late things are much cheaper.
"the Anniversary" for $14.9 million — is 1923, the most valuable period, of Museum importance, a masterpiece. Painting sold in 1990, ARTIMX index is growing, so it's hard to imagine its current price.
7. $14,51 million Valentin Serov. Portrait Of Maria Tsetlin. 1910
One of the greatest portraitists of our Valentin Alexandrovich Serov lived very long — 46 years (1865-1911), but allotted him by fate, the time he managed to write hundreds of paintings and graphic portraits. The artist possessed a unique ability to see the faces of their models to the smallest details, not only to see every line or wrinkle on them, but to guess the inner content of these individuals, to give a clear and accurate description of the person. It was both the gift and Serov, and his curse. He couldn't write a walk-through of portraits just for the sake of earnings, each work lived, passed through. And the degree of excitement Serova directly depended on whom he wrote. Portraits of friends and family, or just cute to him it was given with joy, trying to convey their inner beauty. As he wrote in 22 years of his future wife Olga Trubnikova, "want, want gratifying and I will write only gratifying". Just at this time (1887-1888) were two of the brightest masterpiece Serov — "Girl with peaches (Portrait of V. S. Mamontova)" and "Girl in the sunlight (Portrait of M. Ya. Simonovich)". The artist's talent was soon spotted, and he orders poured in from nobles and noblewomen. And the richer was the customer, the usually cranky he was and the harder Serov was working with him. Each portrait cost him great physical and mental effort. Probably he got "burned" so quickly, and did not live to fifty. The cause of death was a heart attack.
Work on each portrait was preceded by days if not weeks of observations of the model. For every lady and gentleman of Serov were looking for a characteristic pose, the outfit, the setting. He did not like to repeat. The artist could make dozens of sketches (Serov was a master of lightning sketches) and-прежнему not be ready for a portrait. But suddenly noticed the gesture or facial expression made him delight, and he set to work. And binding the selected posture, as a rule, not subject. Except that it could disappointed Serov himself. According to the testimony of his models, the artist destroyed the almost finished work, considering it a failure. And it was not a portrait in a hurry, and the work that took dozens of days and even months of work. From their teachers Ilya Repin and Pavel Chistyakov, the artist learned a style of writing thoughtfully, carefully working through the details. "Otherwise, can not write, — said Serov, — is to blame, not only do not know how not to love." A secular person frightened each other with sessions of posing at the Serov. For a portrait, he required 40 to 100 sessions, and the artist insisted on them regardless of being a model. Tell that the Princess Polina shcherbatova while posing sat with his back hand even got the nerve inflammation and was treated for some time. But the sacrifices had to go to the models, of course, was worth it. Portraits at the Serov came out surprisingly true, the artist was able to give an accurate description of the personality of the customer. Serov was reached that due to the huge Arsenal of artistic techniques — composition, choice of interiors, study outlines (for this, following the precepts of the old masters, he oftenclothed model in noble black robes).
the Most expensive to date is the work of Valentin Serov "Portrait of Maria Tsetlin" 1910. The painting, exhibited with the estimate at £1.5–2.5 million, went under the hammer for a record for works by the artist the sum of £of 9.27 million ($14,51 million) taking into account Buyer's Premium. It happened on "Russian bid" Christie's November 24, 2014. It was the highest price when-либо paid for the art work to specialized "Russian auctions" held in London. This record of Valentin Serov immediately hit the top ten in our ranking and stood to one side with such world famous artists as Marc Chagall, Nikolai Roerich, or Natalia Goncharova.
Than to explain such auction a success master, known all-таки mainly among our collectors and little known to Western connoisseurs? The secret must be to level things, came up for auction. "Portrait of Maria Tsetlin" — textbook product, received an enthusiastic assessment of his contemporaries Serov. As he wrote Nikolai Efros, portrait "to strong, this is not exactly painting, and sculpture. ...Serov not only writes the person — he exposes the underbelly of the soul." And the soul before us the most noble: Maria samoilovna Tsetlin (nee Tumarkin) was a social and political activist, publisher, philanthropist, and just a beauty, the depth of the eyes which sang of artists and poets. In the hungry winter of 1917-1918 Maria samoilovna with her husband Mikhail Osipovich by Celinum satisfied with the salons, where a kind word and a free meal all — "by Vyacheslav Ivanov to Mayakovsky", as later recalled Ilya Ehrenburg. House Zelenih was equally welcoming and in exile; in Paris, Maria samoilovna, along with her husband published the works of Bunin, Kuprin, Merezhkovsky, and other figures of the Russian Diaspora.
Maria samoilovna, as legend has it, was selected in the model by Serov. In 1910, seeing her one day in a Paris restaurant with her family then still the future husband Mikhail Tsetlin, Serov wanted in whatever was to write her and even promised her future father-in-law free a portrait of his family in exchange for the right to write then their companion. Family portrait of Osip Sergeevich Tsetlin did not wait, and the portrait of Maria was still written. In the few weeks that lasted the sessions of posing, Tsetlin so close to Serov, then even named his son Valentine in honor of the artist (Serov did not live to see the birth of his namesake).
the fate of the portrait evolved dramatically. In 1959, Maria samoilovna gave her a rich art collection, including the Serov portrait, Ramat-Ган in Israel. But despite the mayor's promises, the congregation Zelenih never received a proper Museum facility. The first years it do what-то trapped in a warehouse that had a disastrous impact on the state of many things. Decades later, a collection of huddled in a few rooms of the Museum of Russian art, next to a collection of Asian artifacts. On display were a couple dozen things, the rest is still in the warehouse. "Portrait of Maria Tsetlin" Serov was the main and most important work in the Museum, so when we were talking about selling it, aware of Museum Affairs members of the publicstarted to vehemently protest, wrote petitions and collected signatures, but the process could not be stopped — work was still exhibited and sold for referred to $14.51 million Left to hope that the new owner will not refuse to provide it for exhibitions and provide her with appropriate storage conditions.
8. $12,09 million Nicholas Roerich. Madonna Laboris (Proceedings Of The Mother Of God. 1931)
Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (1874-1947) — artist, philosopher, social activist, traveler, archaeologist, writer and poet. He created his own religious-философское teaching "the Living Ethics" (Agni Yoga) with thousands of followers around the world. He initiated the signing of the first ever international Treaty on the protection of cultural heritage, which received the name of "Roerich Pact". Carried out two large-scale expeditions to Central Asia and Manchuria. And while he never stopped making art and wrote for his life more than 7,000 paintings.
On the auction of Russian art Bonhams June 5, 2013 was a record prices for works of Nicholas Roerich: a 1931 painting "Madonna Laboris (Proceedings of the mother of God)" has paid £7.9 million ($12.1 million). This is an absolute record specialized Russian auction international auction houses. And koi-то ever record was recorded not at Christie's or Sotheby's, and Bonhams. Auction house three days before the auction twice changed the estimate of work is probably afraid to miscalculate. In the end, a preliminary assessment has increased from £0,8–1,2 up to £2,5–3,5 million to Foresee the outcome of the battle of the rates was difficult, because these trades the maximum price for the work of Nicholas Roerich was only £1.7 million (sale 2007). But in this case at the auction got a textbook thing, not exhibited since 1930-х years.
Roerich was enthusiastic collective image of the mother of the World. In the years of wandering in India, China, Tibet and Mongolia, he wrote a number of works in which he tried to achieve "the synthesis of all the iconographic representations of" Mother: "Queen of heaven" (1931), "Madonna Laboris (Proceedings of the mother of God)" (1931, 1934, 1936), "Madonna Oriflamma (Ardent Madonna)" (1932), a triptych dedicated to Joan of Arc (1931), "Madonna the Protector" (1933) and others. These symbolic images of the Mother unite the ideas about the mother of God in the Roman and Byzantine tradition, the Madonnas of Western Europe and the Eastern goddesses-прародительницах.
the Plot "Works of the mother of God" taken by Nicholas Roerich from the ancient apocryphal story described in the publication "Power of light" (1931): "Bothered the Apostle Peter, sacristan of Paradise. Speak to the Lord: “All day the shore is the gate, no one is allowed, and the next morning the new people in Paradise.” And the Lord said, “Come on, Peter, the night's watch”. Go at night and see: the blessed virgin lowered over the wall of Paradise white scarf and taking what-то soul. Peter got jealous and wanted to intervene, but the Lord whispered: “sh-ш! Do not bother!"".
the Picture painted by Roerich in India in 1931 and arrived in new-Йорк and was enthusiastically received by his fans. "Proceedings of the virgin" graced the cover of the periodical publications of the Roerich Museum in February 1932. Soon the picture came in a private collection — first, presumably, to hispatron, Louis Horch, and then — to a certain member of the Rosicrucian order. Since then the picture has not appeared at public exhibitions. But the impression of her was so vivid that a friend of Roerich persuaded him to write a copy of the smaller (is now in the Museum of Roerich in new-Йорке). Obviously the picture with such a history could not go unnoticed. In the end, with a result of £7.9 million Nicholas Roerich immediately entered the top ten Russian artists.
9. $10,88 million Natalia Goncharova. Flowers (approx. 1912)
Natalia Goncharova (1881-1962) entered the Russian art as the "Amazon of the avant-garde", the pioneer painting, a brilliant decorator, painter, graphic artist, stage designer. Circuit independent creative experiments Goncharova developed the ideas of primitive art (neo-primitivism), included in their works transformed the elements of icon painting and lubok.
it is believed that her greatest teacher was a man, Mikhail Larionov, which Goncharova had met in 1900. The pair remained inseparable in the works (although not being formally married, they stopped family relations in 1930-х and later joined their lives with other people). Almost in all exhibitions and creative associations artists participated together. They were exhibited on all major exhibitions of Russian avant-garde: "Jack of diamonds", "Donkey's tail", "Target"... This same tradition has survived in exile. Not casually on the back of the paintings of Natalia Goncharova, one can often see signatures Larionov with the accession number that in fact no more than service marks of the organizers of the exhibitions: still usually exhibited together, and the "family" names it was easier not to get lost.
Goncharova did not have to hurry to leave Russia with the beginning of the persecution of the avant-garde. The couple settled in Europe for a couple of years before the revolution, has long been the theatre secured orders until the end of his days he lived in Paris. It is believed that the highest art are the work of Goncharova doemigratsionnogo period and items created before 1920-х years.
Record of the painting "Flowers" sold on 24 June 2008 at Christie's for £5.53 million Canvas is one of the most valuable period of creativity of the artist; in this strikingly interwoven ideas and energy of futurism, compositional techniques of corporate lucismo and yellow-красная colours, characteristic of Russian folk art and icon painting. The history of painting can be traced back to personal of the Paris exhibition of 1914 at the gallery of Paul Guillaume;, it was in the collection of German collectors Hohov, well known for publications, participated in exhibitions.
10. $10,84 million Nicholas Feshin. Little cowboy
Nikolai Ivanovich Feshin (1881-1955) we know is not as good as, for example, Konstantin Korovin, but the attention this Russian impressionist deserve, of course, no less. The Americans in the same way as we think Feshin your artist and havefor this reason: in 1923 he left Russia for the New world, why is half of his heritage refers to the overseas period. But nurtured the talent we have, first in Kazan and then in St. Petersburg
the First artistic flair, Nicholas said, and began to bring his father — a Carver of wooden iconostasis in Kazan. Then there was the Kazan art school, where the boy studied for five years, until 1900-го, and the St. Petersburg Academy of arts, where talented young man was enrolled in a class Ilya Repin. In the years of study at the Academy Feshin was engaged in searches of its own painterly style, and then supported him in this desire for originality. Gradually the art the manner of Mao began to take over-менее clear features: broad, free brushstrokes characteristic of impressionism, and realistic portrayal of individual elements of — especially those in the portraits.
After graduating from the Academy of arts in 1909 Feshin chose a career in Moscow or St. Petersburg artist modest teacher at the Kazan art school. Feshin was the only member of the Academy of fine arts, who lived not in the capital. Neither the austere beauty of St. Petersburg or the southern flavor of Italy (where he went to the pensioner's trip) did not encourage him so, as nature and the inhabitants of villages along the middle reaches of the Volga. To their life and life he had not only artistic but also ethnographic interest. Even during his studies at the Academy Feshin repeatedly traveled to the village of Mari, where nature was doing sketches of local customs.
In 1923, under the mediation of the American Salvation Army and collector of U. S. Stimmel Feshin with his wife Alexandra (daughter of the Director of the Kazan art school) emigrated to America. Not to say that the artist did not take the Soviet regime. On the contrary, at first he even welcomed it. But famine and devastation of the Civil war did the trick — and he wanted to leave. From tifa's father died, followed by the mother school, where he worked as an artist, there was no heat and normal conditions; Feshin wrote in a letter to America, which gradually loses its useless and creative energy, as all the art were used only for propaganda. After the departure of the name of the Union Feshin did not remember until the Khrushchev thaw. And the artist has started a completely different life.
at First the family lived in new Fishinig-Йорке a Bohemian neighbourhood near Central Park. There the artist painted his first portraits of black women, participated in exhibitions, has won a reputation among the local art-сообщества. But poor health (Fechin developed tuberculosis) forced him to leave the bustling new-Йорк and move to the small town of Taos in the state of new-Мексико, where the climate was drier.
In Taos Feshin found their second homeland, he was inspired by nature and simplicity of lifestyle of the local population. He painted portraits of Indians, cowboys, black women. A few years after moving to the artist built a wonderful house, which put his soul and all the free money — about twenty thousand dollars. Feshin was not only a great painter but also a talented designer: the house he decorated with carvings of own "neofolklorism" design (affected father's lessons).
it was necessary to establish a way of lifein a new place, as Feshin had to leave him: in 1933, his wife asked for divorce. In a letter to his brother Feshin mentioned that Alexander was fascinated by what-то writer, and she wanted to become a writer. Twenty years of marriage has proven to have been wasted, life had to be rebuilt. Luxury home in Taos Feshin left his wife, and he moved first to new-Йорк, and then to Santa-Монику in California. Iya's daughter followed him around and took his side, but with the appearance of her own family Feshin alone. Sadness loneliness he tried to dispel the hard work, which was enough: his portraits were in Vogue, he wanted to pose for many famous Americans. Then the artist began to travel, he visited Mexico, in Java and Bali. And everywhere continued to write that it was the most fun — human face.
Feshin was thinking about going home, but before his death in 1955 did not have time to implement. Fulfilling last wishes of his father, the daughter of Ia and later transported his remains were reburied in Kazan.
In the Fechin house in Taos in 1981-м was opened with the Institute of Museum and educational center. And in Russia deserved fame to him start to come just now in the second half of 2000-х large-scale exhibition of Feshin was conducted by the State Museum of fine arts of the Republic Tatarstan (Kazan), Russian Museum (St.-Петербург), the State Tretyakov gallery (Moscow).
the Result of the canvas "Little cowboy" sold December 1, 2010 house MacDougall's in London for £6.9 million ($10.8 million), surprised: estimated before the auction at £500-700 million, portrait of a boy became the top-лотом all Russian week in London Dec 2010. As the media wrote, fought for it two telephone buyer and the winner was a client from Russia. In December 2011, the painting can be seen at the exhibition of the club of collectors in Moscow, Galeev Gallery.
11. $9,42 million Nicolas de Stael. Reclining Nude (1954)
the fate of the artist Nikolai Vladimirovich Stal von Holstein, Nicolas de Stael (Nicolas de Stael, 1914-1955) similar, perhaps with Shakespeare's stories. He was born in the year of the beginning of the First world war in St. Petersburg, in the family of General, the Baron, the assistant commandant of the Peter and Paul fortress. In 1919, the family managed to move to Poland; after three years the boy lost his parents and ended up in an adoptive Catholic family. Studied in Belgium, Holland, travelled across Europe, took lessons from the famous Fernand Leger. A huge impression on the traveler made Holland; in one version, in 1933 it was here, in the country rich cultural and artistic traditions, he finally decided to become an artist. In 1939, his fate made a sharp turn (not the first and not the last): for the sake of obtaining French citizenship future genius of the avant-garde exchanged the comfort workshop for service in the Foreign Legion in Tunisia. However, he served for a short time: the surrender of France in 1940, split the ranks of the Legionnaires. De Stael moved to nice in the unoccupied part of it, and in 1943 went to the German-occupied Paris to the elderly Kandinsky, exhibited theirwork next to the works of the master and received its first serious recognition. In 1944 — according to one version, under the influence Lansky — his creativity completely captured the pointlessness.
After the war, the fashion for abstract expressionism and his fame, the prominent representative of the US; artist invited overseas gallery owners, but after trips to the New world de Stael, not accepting the virtues of the American way of life, returned to Europe.
In 1952, tachist and abstractionist de Stael briefly addressed the subject of creativity under the impression the evening of the game players in the spotlight. And this new style brought him great success. Prices for his new works began to rapidly rise. In 1955, reaching the status of one of the most significant representatives of post-war avant-garde, forty-one-year Nicolas de Stael for no apparent reason jumped out the window of his French Studio in Antibes.
Paintings of de Stael at auctions get quite rare. During the year the art-рынок can go only one-два a dozen of his works. For example, in 2012-м for public auction exhibited a total of 19 works by de Stael, 2014-м — 28. Record de Stael auction result was shown on 6 December 2011 at the Paris auction ArtCurial: work in 1954's "Reclining Nude" unexpectedly went for €7 million ($9.4 million), almost three times higher than expected estimate of €2.7 million
12. $8,48 million Tamara de Lempicka. Dream (Rafaela on a green background. 1927)
Tamara de Lempicka (1898-1980) — art-дива of the twentieth century, and master a kind of interpretation of ar-деко in painting. Biography Lempicka, marked a watershed exile in General is typical for Russian women the first third of the last century — but to survive such a crazy fireworks of events, which, in fact, made from common life private, had only a few. She was born in a noble Polish family, fourteen-year-old moved in with her aunt in St. Petersburg, where with a head has plunged into the social life. At eighteen, the future artist was married to the handsome and Lovelace Tadeusz Lempitsky, but the happiness of a young family was short-lived: the revolution broke out and her husband put in jail. Using the help Swedish (according to other sources, Danish) Consul, Tamara rescued him and took him away to Paris. There the couple initially lived on the proceeds from the sale of family jewelry, but the stock of jewelry was not infinite. In addition, Lempicka daughter was born, about which it was necessary to take care of. Tadeusz accustomed to an idle life, work is not sought and so Tamara had to take matters into their own hands. From childhood, she was a good painter, and so it was natural that she chose to study painting. One of the mentors Lempicka was the artist Andre Lot (André Lhote), founder of the special form of synthetic cubism — simplified cubism, cubism-лайт in which innovative techniques, tested for the first time, Picasso (Pablo Picasso) and Marriage (Georges Braque), perfectly coexisted with the principles of academic painting. Based on this style, the artist made the right decision: this "modernized" classics like Parisbourgeois. Lempicka had a lot of customers, and the artist was able to realize his dream of a luxurious life. Parties in wealthy homes, photo shoots, Affairs with different men and women (famous and not)... In 1939, Lempicka, has received an aristocratic title (her second husband was Baron), moved to the United States, but there her fame began to fade. The artist did not lack for funds, but continued to work: recognition in the artistic environment she was as expensive as wealth. However, recent work Lempitski not gained much success with critics. In 1960-х years, the revival of the popularity of the ar-деко, to the work of the artist re-emerged interest — only this time as the monument of a bygone era.
of Course, the name Lempicka would not remain in art history, not find it at the time, the very style that makes her work unmistakably recognizable. Monumental portraits of women — images socialite, like she came from a fashion photo, sensual Nude... of Course, wealthy customers wanted to see themselves in the images of Hollywood divas. Interwar painting Lempicka — parade of expensive dresses, luxurious bodies, puffy lips, languid looks and power poses, a gallery of images of self-confident, modern and sexy women. Like the futurists and Fernand Leger (Fernand Léger), she sang the modern city: the background for many of her portraits is the urban landscape with high-rise buildings. In tune with the style of his time and of his circle, creativity Lempicka organically entered in life today — for example, it collects Madonna (and shows a picture of a few clips).
November 2, 2011 at Sotheby's auction in new-Йорке work "Dream (Rafael on a green background)" in 1927, written Lempicka in fruitful Paris period, went for $8.5 million and led the price ranking of the artist.
13. $7,43 million Ilya Repin. Paris cafe (1875)
the Great Russian painter... possible to start any article on Ilya Yefimovich Repin (1844-1930). With his textbook work started with painting children in schools, and heroes of his paintings I know by heart, whether haulers, the Cossacks or Ivan the terrible, weeping over the dead son. When after the October revolution the artist was cut off from the Motherland in his estate Penates in Kuokkala (Finland), he refused to return, despite repeated invitation of the Soviet leadership. But the authority and popularity of the famous Wanderers this does not affected people's love and acceptance never left Repin. Most of his masterpieces ago adorn the walls of the Tretyakov gallery and the Russian Museum, and getting to the auction of paintings of Repin Museum quality seemed very unlikely. Nevertheless, it happened: in July 2011, Christie's included in the catalog of the "Paris cafe", kept in some private collection since 1916 and has never been exhibited in Russia.
wrote Repin, "Paris cafe" during a trip to Europe in the years 1873-1876. In this journey the young artist, intoxicated by the creative freedom that prevailed in the French capital, temporarily distracted frommade his Russian subjects and appealed to the typical theme, he depicted representatives of the Parisian Bohemia at the tables of the Boulevard café. Among the prototypes of the heroes of the paintings of the researchers called, for example, the famous salon painter Jean-Леона Jerome, poet Katula Mendes and sitter Emil White. The attention of visitors drawn to the cafe came in unaccompanied by a lady (Anne Judic).
This painting Repin can be considered a prototype of the future impressionist group of portraits, which portrayed the world of busy Parisian cafe. It realistic brushwork of Repin to a new level. The artist, however, criticized Vladimir Stasov and Ivan Kramskoy — for departure from the Russian material when choosing a theme.
the auction house Christie's is actively encouraged by the Russian museums to purchase the work, citing the fact that "this opportunity may not present itself for over a century." The picture for £4,52 million went to an unknown telephone buyer. Apparently, it was a private person, as no Museum reported on the purchase.
14. $7,33 million Konstantin Somov. Rainbow (1927)
His "Lady in a blue dress" (1897-1900) — is one of the jewels of the Tretyakov gallery, the masterpiece of Russian symbolism, the thing that immerses the viewer in a sense of peace and causes regret of a bygone beautiful, albeit ephemeral era. Konstantin Andreevich Somov (1869-1939) — artist known in several creative ways: as a representative European romantic branch of Russian symbolism as a modernist with verified decorative style, as well as schedule-оформитель. Member of society "World of art", student workshop Repin.
Konstantin Somov become quite obsessive storm price rating of Russian art since 2006. Suddenly taken height puzzling a number of professional market participants. It is clear that, on the one hand, the decorative symbolist Kgs — favorite of Russian collectors and the artist, of course, of national importance. On the other — amounts above $5 million — is already the price range for sound works by artists of world level. In 2007, the "rainbow" (1927) was transferred to a new owner for £3.3 million, with 5.5-кратным excess of the upper estimate. Converted into dollars at that time, it was $6.5 million — budget in which then you could pick up a pretty good job of almost any the master of world level, including Picasso. "Rainbow" was written by Somov in exile. The artist, like several of his colleagues, did not return to the USSR from foreign creative business trips, where he went in 1923. Since the late 1920-х to the last day, the artist worked in France. However, "rainbow", 1927, written in the same Soviet-пасторальном modernist style that Soms developed in the 1920-е years in Russia.
15. $7,25 million Ilya Mashkov. Still life with fruit (1910)
At the mention of the Jack of diamonds name Ilya Ivanovich Mashkov comes to mind oneof the first. In his workshop in the summer of 1910 held a historic meeting of young artists who decided to oppose the academic realist tradition and the new art that combines the techniques of Fauvism, cubism, to some extent, i.e., the new Western trends, with Russian folk art — aesthetics of the lubok, farcical signs, paintings, trays, utensils, etc. Parodying the pretentious names of contemporary exhibitions ("the Golden fleece", "Wreath-Стефанос", etc.) and wanting to shock the Moscow townspeople, the first group exhibition of artists called "Jack of diamonds" (here the reference to the garb of convicts, to which was attached a sign of diamonds, and to the French interpretation of this playing card: Jack of diamonds — a swindler and a crook).
Mashkov, even earlier critics are calling "the Moscow barbarian", his works perfectly illustrated the principles of this new art. Folk art he has absorbed since childhood: Mashkov did not grow up in a Prim Petersburg, and in the Cossack village Mikhailovskaya (now Uryupinsk district of the Volgograd region), in a family of small merchants. He started drawing during his studies at the parish school, then did the posters and ads for grocers, where he was a boy. Mashkov was genuinely surprised when a local art teacher told him that the artist — is a profession and that we need to learn. And Mashkov went to study: he entered the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture, did not get out of Moscow and St. Petersburg museums, then went abroad, where he studied not only classical art, but also the latest painting. Since 1904 Mashkov and he began to teach painting in his Moscow Studio, which existed until 1917. He didn't want to blindly follow authorities, assembled them cultural baggage resulted in Mashkovsky unique style, built on a combination of the innovations of Western modernism (especially French Fauvism) and traditions of Russian art school.
Mashkov became one of the main exhibitors of the first exhibition "Jack of diamonds", held in December 1910 — January 1911. His hands were belonged to the Central work of the exhibition — "self-Portrait and portrait of Pyotr Konchalovsky", which Mashkov contrary to the traditions of classical self-portraits of the artists depicted himself and his friend Konchalovsky not with a brush at the easel, and in his boxers, with violin and notes in hand and with weights at the feet. Here — piano and set the table with cups of tea and pineapple. On the profession of the model implying only two still lifes on the wall and the titles of the books standing on the piano.
On the same first exhibition "benovalence" presented "still life with fruit" — the most expensive work of Mashkov, sold at public auction. At the auction of Russian art Christie's June 3, 2013, this picture went under the hammer for £4,77 million ($7.25 million). The bright color palette still life painting refers to the work of Matisse and Cezanne, flat perspective associated with painting on trays, blank background brings to mind the splint, and symmetrical composition reminiscent of the works of Giotto and icons depicting the virgin and child. "Still life with fruit" was last exhibited in Amsterdam in 1913, and then was in the collection of William Beffi (1880-1950), a famous collector of works of Russian and German expressionists. Dozens of years, the pictureMashkov went out for public access, and it is not surprising that she was willing to pay record money.
16. $7,07 million Kustodiev. The trooper (1923)
Boris Mikhailovich Kustodiev (1878-1927) — famous Russian painter and graphic artist, were part of the Association "the Union of Russian artists" and "the art World". Kustodiev grew up in Astrakhan, together with her mother, they rented a small cottage in the house of a wealthy merchant. One of the most vivid impressions of his childhood was a visit of the exhibition of the Wanderers, after which he decided to devote his life to art. In 18 years, Kustodiev entered the St. Petersburg Academy of arts, where his talent was appreciated: Ilya Repin invited the young man to participate in the writing of the monumental canvas "the Meeting of the State Council" (now this painting is in the collection of the Russian Museum).
Kustodiev left an impressive artistic heritage. It includes portraits of famous people of his time (including the famous world of art and Feodor Chaliapin), genre portraits, book illustrations, sketches of costumes and scenery for theatrical productions. During the first Russian revolution, he created cartoons for magazines "Bugbear" and "Infernal mail", and in 1915 wrote a bright, somewhat lurid portrait of Nicholas II on the background of the Kremlin, which sold in large quantities in the form of reproductions on postcards.
At the dawn of the Soviet era Kustodiev did panels on the revolutionary subject, and even illustrated books about Lenin. However, about new government artist long time no illusions: in 1920, the painting "Bolshevik" — monstrous giant with blood-красным banner.
the legacy of the artist is large and diverse, but the majority of art lovers his name first conjures bills of sale, burly Russian beauties ("merchant's wife at tea", RM) and an idyllic scene of festivities. Looking at these cheerful paintings, it's hard to believe they were hopelessly ill and understands it man: Kustodiyev suffered from tuberculosis of the spine and the last twelve years of his life in a wheelchair.
the Painting "the Coachman" was sold for £4.4 million ($7.1 million) at Christie's November 26, 2012, which was stimulated by his extensive exhibition history and provenance. "The trooper" was one of the key exhibits in the landmark exhibition of Russian art in new-Йорке in 1924, which recorded a total of more than 1,000 works of about a hundred Russian artists, — and decorated her poster. In 1936 the painting from the artist's widow acquired a future Nobel prize winner Pyotr Kapitsa, and she never left the family collection until the Christie's auction. The "Driver" was the other significant preconditions for the success of the auction: classic kustodievskie story, Museum quality, impressive size (98,3 x 81,5). We can say that the estimate was not biting — £1.5–2 million In the end we got a good record sales with double the estimate.
17. $6,34 million Vasily Polenov. Who is without sin among you? (1908)
a Contemporary of Igor Grabar wrote that in Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov (1844-1927) "sitting or, if you will, sitting three artist: medieval, Moscow and Palestine or even East, and that they are all very little to do with one another". Indeed, the pensioner's trip to Europe, life in the merchant Patriarchal Moscow, travel East filled creativity Polenova completely different topics. He wrote of paintings on subjects from medieval European history; dedicated his paintings to the beautiful Moscow — to her temples, manors, quaint courtyards; created a Grand gospel cycle. And that's not all Polenov's services. In the estate of Savva Mamontov at Abramtsevo, together with Viktor Vasnetsov Polenov came up with the design of the Church of our Saviour, and on his land in Buhovo, on the banks of the Oka, and built for their own projects manor house, workshop Abbey and a small Church for the locals. Polenov was a theater artist —, first in the home (created scenery for home theater in Abramtsevo), and then on a national scale (sketches for productions of the Bolshoi theatre, the Russian private Opera of Savva Mamontov in Moscow, etc.). As already mentioned the home theater in Abramtsevo Polenov also acted and composed music. In addition, the artist was a talented teacher: for thirteen years he taught at the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture.
Vasily Polenov main work of his life was considered a cycle of paintings "From the life of Christ." This was initiated with a Grand painting "Christ and the sinner", on which the artist worked for six years. The painting depicts Christ, who, defending the adulteress, addresses the crowd with the famous words: "he Who is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her". This is the large format work Polenova (3.07 in × 5,85), canvas for it had to order in Europe, because in Russia then this size of canvas are not released.
in order to achieve historical authenticity, the artist in the years 1881-1882, undertook a journey to the East — in Egypt, Syria, Palestine (on the way back stopped in Greece), in which he made numerous sketches of local nature, architecture and local inhabitants. The painting, completed in 1887, received a wide resonance among the public, convincing Moscow of the need to continue the series. On the turn of the century, he made another journey to the East, and after over nearly ten years of writing in their paintings of the Christ "came into the world and making its way among the people." Completed in 1908, the cycle of about 60 paintings were exhibited in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Prague and other cities. The success was tremendous. Paintings of interested Americans, who asked to arrange their exhibition in the United States. Work had to cross the Atlantic on the infamous "Titanic", but not managed to get on the ill-fated ship. Next time Evangelical paintings Polenov decided to send to America in 1924, in a Grand retrospective of Russian art in the "Grand-Централ Palace" in new-Йорке presenting American viewers more than 1,000 works of about a hundred Russian artists. Paintings Polenov among sent to America works was 12 (according to another version, 13). Among uplyvshie overseaspaintings Polenov was an original version of the painting "Christ and the sinner" — work "Who among you is without sin?", written in 1908-м, in the year of the Evangelical cycle. The plot and the composition of the painting, "which one of you is without sin?" is almost the same as her "older sister" of the Russian Museum. However, it is much smaller in size (118 x 239), and color it a little different.
the new-йоркской exhibition 1924 Russian paintings could not only see but also to buy. This opportunity was used by industrialist, philanthropist, diplomat, the Russian art lover Charles R. crane (Charles R. Crane). He acquired works of Polenov "Who among you is without sin?" and "Guilty of death", and later gave them one of North American universities. And now, after more than 80 years, in 2011 the institution decided to sell works of Polenov at Bonhams. Their appearance on the art-рынке as if from nothingness was created the desired effect. Pre-auction exhibition was held at the Tretyakov gallery, where work is "Guilty of death" and "which one of you is without sin?" exhibited in the hall Polenov next to other works of the master. But sponsorship forces, as in the case with Repin, was not enough to redeem the work for the Museum. Both paintings took 30 November 2011, several times exceeding the estimate. The painting "Who is without sin among you?" set the current record for the works of Polenov — £4.07 million (including Commission; estimate: £1.2–1.8 million).
18. $6,27 million Yuri Annenkov. Portrait of Alexander Nikolaevich Tikhonov (1922)
Yuri Pavlovich Annenkov (1889-1974) — outstanding Russian painter and graphic artist, theater and cinema, is the author of numerous book illustrations. Member of the Association "World of art" (1917), a pupil of Maurice Denis (Maurice Denis) and Felix Vallotton (FélixVallotton). Style Annenkov, which is called the "new synthesis" or "neo-realism", which combines classical elements with innovative techniques of avant-garde movements — cubism, futurism, expressionism.
All the first places in the list of most expensive works by this artist take portraits. Who not only wrote to Annenkov: from the famous writers and poets of the Silver century (Akhmatova, Zamyatin, Gorky) to political figures (Lenin, Kamenev, Zinoviev). The researchers even believe that his portrait of Trotsky anticipated the heroic images of leaders, who later became "common place" totalitarian art.
the First place in the price ranking works Annenkov is a "Portrait of writer Alexander Nikolaevich Tikhonov": exhibited at Christie's auction on 24 November 2014 with an estimate £2,5–4,5 million, it was sold for £3.5 million Note that the previous annenkovskoe record — is also an achievement "Portrait of Alexander Tikhonov", only 7-летней ago. What is so interesting about the portrait is that every resale takes place with the result of record or near-record? First — period: in 1922-м came the famous album "Portraits". Second — virtuoso compound in a portrait realistic picture with the "roughness" of cubism, supplemented with collage and three-dimensional object — doorbell. Portrait Tikhonov hada huge success among his contemporaries and even exhibited at the Venice Biennale in 1924, where the author has not returned to Russia and went to Paris.
At the dawn of the Soviet era Annenkov, like many, was actively engaged in the improvement of the aesthetic environment of the new, "proletarian" cities — in particular, designed the Grand mass spectacles, such as the "Taking of the Winter Palace" and "Hymn to liberated labor." In addition, he taught at the State free art workshops and has worked with leading theatrical innovators. Even before the revolution, Annenkov collaborated with the Theater komissarjevskaya and "Crooked mirror" by Nikolai Evreinov, announced himself as a bold experimenter, he was one of the first brought to the Russian stage, expressionism. and in 1920-х first introduced to the public moving parts. Post-revolutionary years also considered the peak of his career in the field of book graphics: in 1918-м Annenkov created the legendary illustrations for the poem by A. Blok "the Twelve".
the Decision not to return from a business trip to Venice was very timely: in 1926 the USSR released their second album, portraits Annenkov, and almost the entire edition size, including the image of "enemies of the people", were destroyed. The book of memoirs of Annenkov "Diary of my meetings", published in America in 1966, was published in Russia only in the early 1990-х, although before that she had walked in samizdat.
In exile, the artist worked so fruitfully: he painted portraits, landscapes and interiors; created an abstract composition with three-dimensional objects, and designed theatrical productions and movies. Annenkov collaborated with such renowned Directors as Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, Georg Wilhelm Pabst and Max Ophüls. The costumes for the film "Madame de..." (1953) he was even nominated for "Oscar".
the artist's Works (especially graphics) appear at auction quite often, and many of them quite affordable.
19. $6,15 million Vasily Vereshchagin. The pearl mosque in Agra (1870-1880)
the Most expensive to date picture of Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin — "Pearl mosque in Agra", sold in Russian auction Christie's on 2 June 2014 for £3,66 million ($6.15 million). The work exceeded the preliminary estimate by half (estimate £1-1. 5 million). The painting "Pearl mosque in Agra" refers to the cycle of works written at the end of two years travel in India Vereshchagin in 1874-1875. This pierced with light work calls to mind the words spoken by the artist in 1891: "I love Moslem mosques: the prayer is simple and not less solemn than the Christians, but the deity they have is neither artist's brush nor a cutter of the sculptor. You feel that God is present during your prayers, but where is he...? Let it open your soul".
the Painting "Pearl mosque in Agra" in 1888, went on a great tour of America as part of the personal exhibition of Vereshchagin. In the Gallery of American art in new-Йорке halls for the exhibition were decorated with Oriental carpets and works of decorative-прикладного art purchasedartist during the trip. After new-Йорка exhibition was sent to Chicago, St-Луис, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Boston, attracted thousands of visitors and a lot of mentions in the press. In 1891 the tour ended, the paintings returned to new-Йорк, after which all 110 works from the exhibition were sold at auction. "Pearl mosque" at first came to a collection of Katalina Lambert, and in 1916 was overbought Frederick Thompson. In the same 1916 the Vereshchagin painting presented to the College. Vassar (new-Йорк), from whose collection after 98 years, the work was put up for auction. So a record result for a well "seasoned" stuff is not surprising. And given the number of works of Vereshchagin sold in American private collection at auction in 1891, it is possible to expect new appearances first-class objects, and hence new records at auction.
20. $5,85 million Zinaida Serebryakova. Sleeping girl (1923)
Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova (1884-1967) is one of the famous artistic dynasty Benoit-Лансере. Dad was a famous sculptor (Eugene Lanceray), and mom — artist-график Ekaterina Benois, sister A. N. Benoit. Childhood Zinaida was held on the estate of Neskuchnoye, in Kharkov province, to draw the girl studied at the art school of M. K. Tenisheva and the portraitist O. E. Braz. The first success came in the late 1900-х, and soon Serebryakova became a member of the Association "the art World". The artist was already married to a train engineer Boris Serebryakov, from this marriage was born two sons and two daughters. The work of the artist from the very beginning was determined by the desire to show the beauty and harmony of the world. And even when life has its scary different (in 1919 from typhoid fever, her husband died, leaving her without means of existence with her four children and sick mother on his hands), Serebryakov in the works its still has not lost that craving for beauty, which is seen most vividly in her Nude.
the Subject of the naked female body was one of the most important in the work of the artist. Nude Serebryakova evolved from images of bathers and Russian beauties in the bath naked to lying more in the spirit of European art. Looking for beautiful, sensual, idealized Nude Serebryakova, it is difficult to imagine that the author of these works lived from hand to mouth, raised four children and had no money for oil paints, and therefore mainly drew on paper. Eventually, in 1924, in search of orders she had to emigrate to Paris (as it turned out, forever), leaving the children in Russia (then move to France was only two, the other two had to part for more than 30 years). In France, life was no better, all those little money that I managed to earn, she was sent home. Only in 1947, Serebriakova received French citizenship. And at Home the authorities relented to her only 1960-х, with the onset of the Khrushchev thaw. About Serebryakova suddenly started talking in the Soviet Union, began to hold its exhibitions, to print her albums, even compared it with the masters of the Renaissance. The artist died in Paris inthe age of 82 years.
Zinaida Serebryakova's long-deserved place in our rankings, but, alas, for many years, none of her work could not be sufficient to overcome the price threshold. Since 2008, the most expensive work of Serebryakova was a pastel (note the schedule!) "Reclining Nude", sold in June 2008 for £1 million ($2.1 million). And finally, on 2 June 2015 on the Russian Sotheby's auction painting by Zinaida Serebryakova "Sleeping girl" several times exceeded the estimate of £400-600 thousand and reached a record for this artist £3,845 million ($5,852 million).
Painting "Sleeping girl" was written Serebryakova in 1923, shortly before she moved to Paris. Times for the artist was very heavy, so when her friend Konstantin Somov invited her to participate in the exhibition of Russian art in new-Йорке, scheduled for the spring of 1924, Serebriakova gladly agreed. Together, they have selected 14 works, including "the Sleeping girl". Picture headed the list of works Serebryakova at the exhibition and, in addition, were printed in large quantities on photographic postcards, along with "the Trooper" and "Portrait of Chaliapin" Kustodiev, works Arkhipov, Vasily Polenov and Nesterov. Cards, according to the organizer of the exhibition Igor Grabar, were being sold "like hotcakes", as all the "Russian" that could pass for a Russian souvenir. But actual sales of works of art are things in the exhibition was not so rosy. Sold a single work and Somov wrote to his sister in Moscow that "he's sorry by artists such as Zina, waiting for at least some-то support." But fortunately, a week after opening Serebriakova was lucky: her "Sleeping girl" was bought Boris Bakhmetyev (1880-1951) — Russian scientist in the field of aerodynamics, in 1917, moved to America as the Ambassador of Russia from the Provisional government, and remaining there forever. Of the proceeds for the picture of the money Serebriakova managed to pay for his trip to Paris, which became her final. And the picture settled into the family collection Bakhmetyev for decades — up to auction in 2015.
21. $5,83 million Ilya Kabakov. Beetle (1982)
Ilya Iosifovich Kabakov (1933) — leader of Moscow conceptualism, the ideology of "communal space". Developer of the concept of "total installation," one of the most controversial artists in the eyes of the Russian public and distinguished philosopher of painting to the public West, Kabakov was able to tell that-то really new sophisticated foreign audience. The art of the artist Kabakov devoted dozens of books, his work and theoretical developments are studied in universities, are subjected to expert analysis. Many frankly do not like, many do not understand, many do not accept ideas, but it is safe to say that the interest in his work is sincere, not artificial.
the Main direction of creativity is Kabakov conceptualism. Specific creative "mastermind" of the artist became communal, with its indispensable attributes: shared kitchen facilities, overcrowding, quarrelsneighbors and absurd. It is clear that even in harsh conditions is its romance, but the semantic levels of the work Kabakov often are to emphasize the atmosphere of suppression of human communal life and respect others. It works about the forced transformation into a "little man", the solace which can only be a dip in the bright dreams. In a narrow sense, these are things — parable aggressive demoralizing influence of the Soviet environment. And it's not hard to imagine that in Russia in the late 1980-х such ideas were not art, but a reality than, perhaps, explains the difficulty of perception Kabakov in his own country. But utility-благополучном the West, where you do not know what the potatoes on the balcony to stock, is another matter and a completely different angle.
anyway, the ascent to world fame Ilya Kabakov made it in exile and rapidly — unlike most other significant representatives of the Russian unofficial art, who moved to the West with the onset of perestroika. Success comparable to Kabakov's, there was none. And Kabakov in 1992-м was a scandalous installation that simulates the Soviet public toilet in which an enthusiastic public systems passed through the conditional section "M" and "W" and wondered at the metaphor: what do Russians live in the toilets? And a year later at the exhibition "NOMA or the Moscow conceptual circle", according to eyewitnesses, there were crowds of people wanting to see the conceptual Kabakov's installation of twelve iron beds, arranged in a circle. And this is just the beginning of 1990-х, and then, of course, dozens of exhibitions, catalogues, reviews in leading publications with all the ensuing consequences in the form of orders and high gallery prices.
in Fact, the gallery prices we know little, this information rarely gets into the public field. Was the publication of the fact that some landmark installations were sold in 1990-х and $1.5 million, and more. But at the auctions of Kabakov, through the million barrier, began to appear only in mid-2000-х. Two-meter "beetle" with the result of £2.6 million was in the clip "millionaires" only in 2008-м, once having won its Creator a few positions in the price ranking of Russian art.
Today Kabakov holds the first place ranking in the price of works by living Russian artists.
22. $5,56 million Alexander Yakovlev. Portrait of Vasily Shuhaeva in his Studio (1928)
Alexander Evgenievich Yakovlev (1887-1938) — graphic artist, painter, working in the neoclassical tradition in the period of modernism. Member of the artistic Association "World of art" in 1912. Having received an academic education, Alexander Yakovlev developed a special portrait style in which a modern look combined with a technique characteristic of classical tradition.
a Pretty widely known artist brought the art reports from ethnographic expeditions — drawings, sanguine drawing, painting. In 1917 he travelled extensively in the Russian Far East, then in Mongolia and China. After the revolution, Yakovlev moved to France, to Paris,where had the confident gallery success. In 1920-х — the early 1930-х along with several expeditions automotive company Citroen has made numerous trips to Africa, Central and South-Восточную Asia. The results of these trips with a sketchbook and Notepad is shaped in a spectacular portraits (especially remarkable portraits Yakovlev, written sanguine), landscapes and genre scenes of distant countries.
Depicted in the portrait, 1928 Vasily Shukhaiev — renowned artist and longtime friend Yakovleva, a well-known and for others it works. In particular, their famous double self-portrait "harlequin and Pierrot" (1914), located in the Russian Museum, is considered a key work of Russian Neoclassicism.
23. $5,37 million Vladimir Baranov-Россине. Rhythm (Adam and eve. 1910)
will Sulim-Вольф Baranov, Vladimir Davidovich Baranov, Daniel Rossini, finally, Vladimir Davidovich Baranov-Россине (1888-1944). People amazing and tragic fate. Emerged as an artist in Paris, worked in the "Hive", friends with Chagall, Zadkine, Soutine, Archipenko. In 1917 he returned to revolutionary Russia, worked in the Department of fine arts Narcompros, taught, designed the first anniversary of the October revolution in Petrograd, worked on the revolutionary murals, designed productions of Meyerhold. In 1925-м, when Soviet Russia began to "tighten the screws" a disappointed artist returned to his beloved Paris that just happened to live in straitened circumstances, and then in 1943-м to get under the deportation of Jews, and a year later to die in Auschwitz (Oswiecim).
the Baranov-Россине for many years was known mostly to specialists, who studied the history of Russian avant-garde. Twists and turns of fate, and the fact that a significant part of the work was kept in the family of the artist, not contributing to the popularity. But at the beginning of our century, everything has changed: in 2002, the exhibition at the State Tretyakov gallery, then — acquaintance with the works in the State Russian Museum. For Russian collectors and art lovers is the name of a "shot" at Sotheby's in 2004, when the transitional cubist "still life with chair" 1911 went under the hammer for $1,050 million In those days it was an outstanding event for Russian art sales and has received wide attention. On the wave of natural interest of work Baranova-Россине began to actively purchased by Russian collectors.
In their search for Parisian artist tried almost all avant-garde movements including cubism, Cubo-futurism, abstraction and surrealism. And before that was the way the academic landscape, and almost inevitable for an artist in those years of post-impressionism. His "ISM" rams-Россине did not invent, but within the framework drawn up during his work clearly stood out for its originality. Craving for manufacturability manifested not only in the visual arts: a sheep, a Renaissance painter, was fascinated by innovation. And all of his discoveries related to the nature of light and color. On account of the artist the invention of the forerunner of son et lumière "option", apparatus for determining the quality of precious stones "fotohronometra",coloring-невидимки "chameleon", later turned into a military camouflage, and even the apparatus for the production of soda. Unfortunately, all these inventions did not bring prosperity artist.
artistic heritage Preserved Baranova-Россине relatively small. According to some estimates, it amounts to little more than 500 paintings and drawings, and not all of them are valuable period. But the painting "Rhythm (Adam and eve)", sold on 24 June 2008 at Christie's for £2.73 million, definitely belongs among the outstanding works of the artist. It was exhibited at the Paris Salon of independent in 1913, when considered and debuted predicted by Guillaume Apollinaire orphism. It contains a characteristic for this area highlights: feeling musical rhythm through the interpenetration of colors and Kubo-футуристическое the intersection of surfaces — and all this without prejudice to the traditional perception of beauty rather peculiar symbolism. For many years the picture-рекордсмен was in the collection of German collectors Alfred and Elisabeth Hoh.
24. $5,34 million Ivan Aivazovsky. The American ships at the rock of Gibraltar (1873)
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (1817-1900) — famous Russian marine painter of Armenian origin. His work — kind of symbol of the era of the formation of Russian art market. It is the Marina Aivazovsky graced the cover of the first directory of "Russian auction" and a few years unchallenged, he headed the list of top-лотов. A million dollars and later became their regular price. According to statistics, since 2003, paintings by Aivazovsky at auctions worldwide 32% was sold for a million dollars and more. Such a result even close and there is not one Russian artist.
the Native of Feodosiya, Aivazovsky received his education at the St. Petersburg Academy of fine arts and almost immediately after graduation went to work in Europe. The world has seen, returned to their hometown, where he worked for almost fifty years. As a painter of the main naval staff Aivazovsky participated in the Crimean war and other campaigns, under the impressions which were born many of his battle paintings.
of Course, Aivazovsky wrote not only the sea but also the traditional types (mountain, steppe, genre scenes), but in this work he was not successful. Popularity Aivazovsky was so broad that his work began to forge during the life of the artist. And today Aivazovsky's paintings appearing at auction, require careful attribution and compliance with high caution in transactions. It would seem that in our time the fashion for Aivazovsky should subside. However, the interest in seascape-прежнему is.
a Record for paintings by Aivazovsky the price paid at Christie's in London on 13 June 2007 for "American ships at the rock of Gibraltar" (1873): in terms of the $5.43 million
25. $5,02 million Vladimir Borovikovsky. Portrait of Countess Lubov Ilyinichna Kusheleva, née Bezborodko (1803)
the Only artist in our ranking, whose creative journey began back in the XVIII century. Stood at the origins of secular art in Russia, Vladimir Borovikovsky (1757-1825) could not become a famous master, who wrote the portraits of Catherine II and representatives of the most illustrious noble families, if not the case. When in 1787 the Empress Catherine went on a Grand tour to the South, whose ultimate goal was just annexed the Crimea, the way it ran through the Ukrainian city of Kremenchug, where erected for its reception the EN-route Palace she loved two allegorical paintings. The first was a picture of Peter I in the form of a farmer, and she, Catherine, this field was sown; and the second the artist has depicted the Empress in the guise of Minerva in the circle of the ancient Greek sages. The author of these paintings turned out to be Vladimir Borovik, the son of the Cossack elders from the city of Mirgorod. His father wrote the icons for rural churches and taught this skill to his sons. Vladimir also wrote and portraits, but vocational education is a secular painter, of course, had not. A talented artist, pasturage the Empress, was invited to Petersburg, where he changed his name to Borovikovsky. Vladimir was already 30 years old and in the Academy of fine Arts to take could not, however, private lessons court Austrian artist I. B. Lampi and countryman D. G. Levitsky him was enough to become a great painter, the author of the famous portraits of Catherine II on the walk of Maria Lopukhina, Gavrila Derzhavin etc.
the fact of the presence of Vladimir Borovikovsky in our rating of amazing, as his portraits are, of course, most of them are stored and exhibited in museums, and those units which are in private collections, settled in them long ago. But the Russian auction Christie's on 2 June 2014 became a real event for the market of works by Vladimir Borovikovsky. The unthinkable happened: was put up for auction from five outstanding works, and all things with impeccable provenance. It was a work from the collection of Ivan Obolensky, a descendant of Russian noble family. In 1925, his ancestor, Prince Sergei Platonovich Obolensky — Russian officer who had emigrated to America with his young wife and heiress of billionaire Alice Muriel Astor, — acquired for his collection of five portraits painted by Borovikovsky. In the family of Prince Obolensky's work has been passed down to trading 2014. Prior to that, in the entire history of auction sales at the auction got only 11 paintings Borovikovsky. And then just five things this level, and even at very attractive prices (each print evaluated not expensive £50-70 thousand). In the end, the portraits turned this battle of bids: items left with excess of estimate by up to 50 times! The most expensive was the "Portrait of Countess Lubov Ilyinichna Kusheleva, née Bezborodko with children Alexander and Grigory" 1803: it sold for £2.99 million ($5.02 million), while the estimate £50-70 thousand I Think that this personal record will last a very long time, because in the near future we can hardly expect the appearance at auction of works by Borovikovsky comparable level.
26. $4,5 million Alexander Rodchenko.Design № 95 (1919)
When in the directory of Russian auction at Sotheby's on 29 November 2016 appeared "Design No. 95" (1919) brush Alexander Rodchenko, work immediately predicted a record sale. This level Rodchenko (painting, big format), the auction was not. In the end, "Design No. 95", put up for auction with an estimate of £2.5–3.5 million (us$3.1–4.3 million), was not only the most expensive work of Rodchenko, but top-лотом all "Russian week": with the Commission of the auction, the buyer paid for it £3.65 million ($4,52 million).
Picturesque "Design No. 95" (1919) refers to the most valuable period of creativity Rodchenko-живописца. In 1919-м he wrote a cycle of paintings "Leninism", which was the idea of the line as an independent pictorial form, the Foundation of any composition scheme. The work cycle he called "Constructions" and gave them numbers. Fourteen paintings of the cycle (including the "Design No. 95") was presented at the XIX Exhibition VZVB of the Department of fine arts of Narkompros in 1920. "Design No. 95," published in the exhibition catalogue. In addition, there are two pictures of this work on the wall of the workshop of Rodchenko made in 1920 and 1924 Provenance works flawless. To the Russian bid was put out from a European private collection in which "Design No. 95" is stored since 1996. In 2009, "the Design of number 95" was one of the main exhibits at the MOMA "Rodchenko and Popova: defining constructivism".
To record "Design No. 95" the most expensive work of Rodchenko was considered a minor figure in 1917 and sold in 2015 for $646 000. Now record plank rose to $4.52 million And who knows how many still to wait for the next record — at least as much as time will pass until the public auction of Rodchenko's work of comparable level.
27. $4,34 million Sonia Delaunay. Market at Minho (1915)
the Name of the artist Sony Terk-Делоне (1885-1979), as well as many other representatives of the Paris school, except for the key figures, not so well known to the General public in Russia. But in France, it is revered as a star of the European avant-garde and the greatest master of ar-деко. It is enough that Sonia Delaunay was the first artist to be awarded solo exhibitions at the Louvre (1964). However, the name of Sonia Delaunay are probably familiar to the Russian fans of fashion and its history, because the artist has managed to transfer their creative ideas in painting in such changeable arts, like fashion design. So she made her dream of "changing and moving work of art".
Born in Poltava province of the Jewish girl Sarah I. (Alieva) stern quickly and left the country. With five years she lived in St. Petersburg with his uncle, a wealthy lawyer of Henry Grater, which took a creative alias "Sonia Terk". Uncle often took her to Europe where she eventually decided to study painting. At eighteen she leaves Russia —, first in Karlsruhe, Germany, and two years later moved to the art capital of the era — Paris.
Not only privacy, but also the way Sony art largely determined the marriage with the French abstract painter Robert Delaunay, whom she left in 1910-м, previously having been a couple of years married to equally promising, but-видимому, not so creatively closest person to her — collector, gallerist and art critic William Ude. The interesting thing is that the first husband did not break relations with the Delaunay couple and even bought their paintings, considering them to be talented.
Together Robert and Sonia was capable of much, even for the invention of the variety of cubism — of orphism. This art movement, whose name in 1912 gave the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, based on the highlighting color effects and dynamics hidden in different color combinations. Russian artists have been influenced by orphism, include Aristarchus Lentulov, Vladimir Baranov-Россине and to a certain extent Alexander Exter, Georgy Yakulov and Alexander Bogomazov.
During his long life, first with Robert, and after his death in 1941 alone, Sonia was able to try out many genres of art. She studied painting, book illustration, theatrical sketches (in particular, designed the decorations of Diaghilev's ballet "Cleopatra"), fashion design, interior design, textile patterns, and even tuning cars.
Early portraits and abstractions of Sonia Delaunay 1900-10-х years, as well as the work of a series of "Color rhythms" 1950-60-х enjoy great popularity in the international and national French auctions. Their prices often reach several hundred thousand dollars. The main record of the artist was installed more 10 years ago — on 14 June 2002 at the Paris auction Calmels Cohen Paris. Then for €4.6 million were sold abstract work "Market at Minho", written in 1915, during the life of the couple Delaunay in Spain (1914-1920).
28. $4,30 million Mikhail Nesterov. The vision of young Bartholomew (1922)
If we estimate our artists on a kind of scale of "Russian-ness", of Mikhail Vasilievich Nesterov (1862-1942) can be safely put where-то in the beginning of the list. His paintings of saints, monks, nuns lyrical "Nesterov" landscape, completely in tune with the highly spiritual mood of the characters, have become a unique phenomenon in the history of Russian art. In his paintings Nesterov talked about Holy Russia, of her particular spiritual path. The artist, in his own words, "I avoided to represent strong passions, preferring modest landscape, a man living an internal spiritual life in the arms of our mother-природы". And according to Alexander Benois, Nesterov, along with Surikov, was the only Russian artist, at least in part approached the high divine words "Idiot" and "Karamazov".
the Special style and religiosity painting Nesterov formed from a variety of factors. Influenced by the upbringing in a Patriarchal, devout merchant family in the city of Ufa with its typically Russian landscapes, and the years of training at the Wanderers Perov,Savrasov and Pryanishnikova at the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture (from them he borrowed the idea of art, touching mind and heart) and in Pavel Chistyakov at the Academy of arts (where he took the technique of academic drawing), and travel for inspiration, to Europe, and deep personal tragedy (the death of his beloved wife Mary the day after the birth of their daughter Olga).
In the result, by the late 1880-х — early 1890-х Nesterov already found your theme, and just at this time he wrote his "Vision of young Bartholomew" (1889-1890). The plot is taken from the Life of St. Sergius. The boy Bartholomew (the future St. Sergius of Radonezh) met an angel in the guise of a monk and received from him the blessing of God to understand the Holy Scripture and surpass your brothers and peers. The picture is imbued with a sense of wondrous —, it is not only and not so much in the figures of Bartholomew and of the Holy elder, but also in the surrounding landscape, via-особенному festive and soulful.
In his later years the artist was called "Bartholomew" his main work: "...if thirty, fifty years after my death, he will still be that-то to tell people — so he was alive, so alive I am." The picture became a sensation of the XVIII exhibition of the Wanderers and in a moment made famous by a young Ufa artist (Nesterov then was not even thirty). "Vision..." acquired in his collection of P. Tretyakov, despite attempts to dissuade him from the side, according to Nesterov, "the faithful Wanderers", true noticed in the work of undermining the "rational" foundations of movement. However, the artist has already taken its own course in the arts, in the end and make him glory.
With the advent of Soviet power Nesterov for his religious paintings had fallen on hard times. The artist moved on to portraits (fortunately had the opportunity to write deeply sympathetic to him), and on the same plots did not dare to think. However, when in the early 1920-х there was a rumor about preparing a large exhibition of Russian art in America, Nesterov quickly decided to participate in the hope for a new audience. They were written for the exhibition by several works, including the author's repetition of the "Vision of young Bartholomew" (1922), the American press named "Vision of St. Sergius in adolescence". A new version of the smaller format (91 × 109) compared to Tretyakov (160 × 211), appeared in the sky the moon, the colors of the landscape darker, and in the face of the boy Bartholomew more seriousness. Nesterov summarizes this pattern is the result of the great changes that have occurred since the writing of the first "Vision...".
Nesterov's Paintings were among the few in the exhibition of Russian art in new-Йорке in 1924 that has been bought. "Vision of young Bartholomew" was in the collection of well-known collectors and patrons of Nicholas Roerich — Louis and Nettie Horch. Since then and until 2007 the work was passed down in the family. Finally, on 17 April 2007 on the Russian bid Sotheby's, the painting was exhibited with the estimate of $2-3 million and it easily exceeded. The final auction price became a record Nesterov, was $4.30 million With this result he became our rating.
29. $4,20 million Konstantin Makovsky. From the everyday life of the Russian boyar in the late XVII century (1868)
Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky (1839-1915) in the dynasty of artists Makovsky became the most rich and popular in life. And if at first it even was fascinated by the idea of peredvizhnichestva and social issues, around the mid 1870-х Konstantin Egorovich more goes into lush custom portraits, exposing the model in the best light, and luxurious historical paintings, where the shiny brocade, velvet glittering gems sparkle. And he performs them masterfully, and takes the work huge for those times money. Even Pavel Tretyakov buying a large number of paintings of Konstantin Makovsky was not too expensive, but because in the collection of the gallery are few of them. Especially when you consider the incredible performance of the artist is comparable to the hard work of Aivazovsky.
Heritage Makovsky is huge. In addition to portraits, landscapes, genre scenes to historical and contemporary issues, he takes up the decorations, lampshades, painting screens for the bedroom — in General, for all that will be offered to the customer. Constantine criticized for straying from topics in the world of Oriental exoticism and boyar feasts, is referred to "the salon" — especially against his younger brother, itinerant Vladimir Egorovich. But Constantine still write his epochal "on Minin square, Nizhny Novgorod, urging people to donate", and all of his custom work — is really masterpieces, its decorative and elaborate anticipating art Nouveau. In old age, already rather disillusioned and sated with luxury, Makovsky said that "it did not bury his God-given talent in the ground, but not used it to the extent that he could." He loved life too, and it prevented him to fully devote myself to art.
Konstantin Makovsky cost a lot of money today. At Sotheby's auction on 26 November 2007, the painting by Konstantin Makovsky "From the daily life of the Russian boyar from XVII century" was sold for £2,036 million ($4.2 million) — several times more expensive than the estimate of £500-700 thousand Written Makovsky in 1868, in the early period of creativity, this work reflects the fashion of the era in genre paintings of Russian history. Heroes Makovsky not specific historical figures, but characteristic types of that age. The Russian aristocracy loved these idealized scenes from the life of noble boyars — perhaps their ancestors. At Makovsky had his own collection of authentic items — cups, buckets, Bratin, caftans, sundresses and vintage hats, which he used in the work of historical genre paintings. Many customers even asked to paint their portraits in costumes from the artist's collection. After the death Makovsky things from his collection were sold out in just four days.
In the painting "From the everyday life of the Russian boyar from XVII century," in the first version, depicts the ceremony of kissing — custom of honoring the guest of a wealthy boyar in the seventeenth century. After the feast the wife or daughter of the house dressed in the clothes brought to an honored guest a Cup of wine, and then received from him a kiss. It was a sign of special respect shown to the guest. Makovsky addressed the subject of time for kissing and after(the painting "Kissing the rite", 1895, RM). According to another version, the work of 1868 depicts a bride and groom a noble boyar-женихом. This may explain the confused look of a young girl who is interested in the opinion of the guest, blessing the gesture of the hostess, standing behind the daughter, and the curiosity of the old woman (possibly a nanny) staying at the door.
30. $4,05 million Vera Rokhlin. Gamblers (1919)
Vera Rokhlin (Schlesinger) — another great artist of the Russian emigration, trapped in our rating, along with Natalia Goncharova, Tamara Lempicka and Sonia Delaunay. Information about the artist's life very poor, her biography has definitely waiting for its researcher. It is known that she was born Vera Schlesinger in 1896 in Moscow in the family of Russian and French from Burgundy. Studied in Moscow at Ilya Mashkov and was almost his favorite student, and after he took lessons in Kyiv, Alexandra Exter. In 1918 she married the lawyer S. Z. Rokhlin and went with him to Tiflis. From there in the early 1920-х the couple moved to France, where the Faith began to exhibit at the "Autumn salon", "Salon of independents" and the "Salon des Tuileries". In a picturesque manner first, followed by the ideas of cubism and post-impressionism, but by the beginning of 1930-х already developed his own style that one French magazine called "artistic balance between Courbet and Renoir". In those years, Faith lived separately from her husband, in Montparnasse, was among the fans of designer of Paul Poiret, the main theme of the painting chosen female portraits and Nudes, which may have contributed to her acquaintance Zinaida Serebryakova (there are even Nude portrait Serebryakova brush Rokhlin) and Paris galleries have held solo exhibitions of the artist. But in April 1934 38-летняя Faith Rokhlina committed suicide. What made a woman in the Prime of life, many of which have achieved in the creative field, to settle scores with life, remains a mystery. Her premature death was called the biggest loss on the art-сцене of Paris in those years.
Heritage Rokhlina is mainly abroad, where Faith has spent the last 13 years of his life and where fully revealed her talent. In 1990-х — early 2000-х French museums and galleries began to hold solo exhibitions Rokhlina and include her work in group exhibitions of artists of the Paris school. She was known to collectors, her works were sold at auctions, and quite well. Peak sales and prices peaked in 2007-2008, when hundreds of thousands of dollars for a good format painting Rokhlina become commonplace. And now, on 24 June 2008, at the evening auction of impressionist and modern Christie's in London cubist painting of Faith Rokhlina "Gamblers", written before the exile in 1919, was suddenly sold 8 times more expensive estimeyta — for £2,057 million ($4,05 million), with the estimate of £250-350 thousand
31. $3,97 million Pavel Kuznetsov. East of the city. Bukhara (1912)
Pavel Varfolomeevich Kuznetsov(1878-1968), the son of a painter from the city of Saratov, a graduate of the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture (where he studied with Arkhipova, Serov and Korovin), one of the founders of Association Blue rose, one of the main and definitely most recognized with the public the theme of creativity was the East. When the first symbolist period 1900-х years, Pavel Kuznetsov with fantastic images of "Fountains", "Awakenings" and "Births" are exhausted, the artist went for inspiration to the East. He remembered as a child was visiting my grandfather in the Volga steppes, and watched the daily life of nomads. "Suddenly remembered the desert and went to the Kyrgyz", — wrote Kuznetsov. From 1909 to 1914 Kuznetsov held in the Kirghiz steppes, the nomads, in a few months, imbued with their way of life and taking them to his sister, "Scythian" soul. In 1912-1913, the artist traveled to the cities of Central Asia lived in Bukhara, Samarkand, Pamir foothills. In 1920-е study of the East has continued in the Caucasus and the Crimea.
the Result of these Eastern trips are a series of amazing paintings which blend and "goluborozovskoy" love blue color and symbolism dear to the artist since childhood icons and Church frescoes, and perceived experience of such artists as Gauguin, Andre Derain and Georges Braque, and, of course, all the magic of the East. Eastern paintings Kuznetsova was warmly received not only in Russia but also at exhibitions in Paris and new-Йорке.
a Major creative success was written in Bukhara in 1912, a cycle of paintings "Oriental city". One of the largest paintings in the series "Eastern city. Bukhara" in June 2014, came up for auction MacDougall's, estimated at £1.9 to 3 million to Work with impeccable provenance and exhibition history: was purchased directly from the artist@the semicolon does not change the place of existence since the mid 1950-х; participated in the exhibitions "World of art", exhibition of Soviet art in Japan and in all key lifetime and posthumous retrospectives of the artist. In the end, for the painting was to Kuznetsova paid a record £2,37 million (USD 3.97 million).
32. $3,72 million Boris Grigoriev. A shepherd from the hills (1920)
Boris Dmitrievich Grigoriev (1886-1939) emigrated from Russia in 1919. Abroad he became one of the most famous Russian artists, but at home he was forgotten for decades, and his first exhibition in the USSR took place only in the late 1980-х. But today it is one of the most popular and highly acclaimed authors in the market of Russian art, his work as beautiful, and graphics, are sold for hundreds of thousands and millions of dollars.
the Artist was extremely efficient, in 1926, he wrote to the poet Kamensky: "Now I am the first master in the world. <...> I do not apologize for these phrases. Need to know yourself, who you are, otherwise you will not know what to do. And life my Holy of labor over and above the senses, and my 40 years to prove it. I'm not afraid of any competition, any order, any theme, any size and any speed".
Probably the most well-known cycles "race" and "Faces of Russia" — is very similar in spirit and differ only in the fact that the first was created before emigrating, and the second isin Paris. In these cycles we see a gallery of types ("faces") of the Russian peasantry: sullenly staring directly at the viewer, the elderly, women, children, they attract the eye and simultaneously push it. Grigoriev is not was inclined to idealize or sugarcoat those he wrote, on the contrary, sometimes he brings the images of the grotesque. Among the "faces", written in exile, to peasant portraits are added portraits of his contemporaries Grigorieva — poets, actors Art theatre, as well as self-portraits. The image of the peasant "Rasei" was extended to the synthesis of the image of the abandoned, but not forgotten homeland.
One of these portraits — of the poet Nikolai Klyuev in the image of the shepherd — became the most expensive painting by Boris Grigoriev. At auction Sotheby's November 3, 2008 work "the Shepherd of the hills," 1920, was sold for $3.72 mn, while the estimate of $2.5–3.5 million Portrait is the author's copy of a lost portrait, 1918.
When quoting reference to the https://artinvestment.ru without fail
- 15.06.2018 Print Banksy is a 35-thousand dollars stolen from the exhibition Fortunately, not from Moscow exhibition. The incident occurred on Thursday in Toronto
- 09.06.2018 The Tretyakov gallery has entered into a partnership agreement with the history Department of Moscow state University The cooperation will start with the educational course "Basics of the modern Museum" and the joint master's program in curating and Museum management
- 06.06.2018 "Sunflowers" by van Gogh can fade from-за unstable pigment The van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam has sounded the alarm: one of the yellow pigments in van Gogh's paintings of sunflowers may eventually become greenish-коричневым
- 05.06.2018 New sculptures of Dmitry Kawarga installed in the Park "Muzeon" In the square opposite the main entrance to the New Tretyakov gallery held their positions on the field biomorphic Captain, Goalkeeper, Defender, Striker and Referee
- 29.05.2018 In new-Йорке discontinued the investigation against Yves Bouvier at the suit rybolovleva Us prosecutors "slowed down" after a fantastic result resale "Savior of the world". Rybolovlev earned her more than $300 million and accuse Bouvier inflating prices has become difficult
- 20.06.2018 705 lots with a total estimate of over 30 million rubles in the "House of antique books in Nikitsky" June 28 auction No. 118 "Painting, graphics, decorative-прикладное art, autographs, rare books on art, photography"
- 19.06.2018 Russian and Western European art in the house "Russian enamel" The next auction of Russian and Western European art will take place on 23 June 2018. Pre-exhibition opened today
- 11.06.2018 Opened 232-е the Auction Traditional twenty lots — six paintings, four sheets of original and one — printed graphics, one work, executed in mixed media and one sculpture
- 09.06.2018 Special auction "Metro" will be held simultaneously with 232-м AI Auction June 11-15, 2018 Project — joint. Monday, June 11 regular AI Auction added another 22 lots — selected works from the exhibition "Metro", which made the curators of art-площадки "Outdoor club". The only exhibition that was successfully held in Moscow
- 09.06.2018 "Orders, medals, insignia of the Russian Empire, objects, stories, rare historic photographs" at auction June 16 In the house "KABINET" will feature approximately 300 lots: orders, medals, insignia, badges of the Russian Empire, rare historical photographs, documents, rare editions and posters
- 20.06.2018 Orders, medals and signs "the Office" on June 16. A brief summary Found new owners for over 33 % of the lots. Revenue of almost 2.7 million rubles
- 19.06.2018 Female saunas, football, rarities of the XVIII century and the archive Shmeleva in the "literary Fund," June 13 Positive statistics not only provide top-лоты, and the participants in the hall and the owners of absentee bids to take a vacation
- 09.06.2018 Auction "Russian enamel" on 2 June. A brief summary Lively, full-bodied and compact auction of paintings and drawings brought 3.75 million rubles
- 05.06.2018 Of 6.75 million rubles for a letter to Marina Tsvetayeva in the "literary Fund" The auction catalog may 30 was sold out half, but brought the "literary Fund" 100 % of the estimate. And again, for the umpteenth time, sales topped the autograph of Marina Tsvetaeva
- 05.06.2018 "Russian enamel" on may 26. A brief summary Revenues amounted to almost 15 million rubles. With hammer away 42 % of the lots. Top-лотом became paintings by Alexander Labas "Soviet fleet" — 1.2 million
- 20.06.2018 "Sculptor Paolo troubetzkoy" in the Tretyakov gallery Presents 68 works of sculpture from the collections of the state Tretyakov gallery, state Russian Museum and the collection of D. M. Yakobashvili
- 19.06.2018 Mad House exhibition in Multimedia Art Museum In "Mad house" on Ostozhenka involved the works of Ilya Kabakov, Vladimir Yakovlev, Pavel Pepperstein, Dmitry Gutov and other authors
- 15.06.2018 The world Cup in Moscow museums What museums will delight fans of the world Cup-2018. From free entrance to the New Tretyakov gallery to the exhibition about the architecture of the stadiums "Luzhniki" and "Dynamo"
- 09.06.2018 "Banksy: genius or vandal? You decide!" in the CHA The first in Russia exhibition of Banksy exhibited about 100 exhibits, including original works, 3D-объекты, rare prints, photographs and more. The exhibition will last till September 2, 2018
- 07.06.2018 "Valery Koshlyakov. Roman Prisoner -- or lifting work" The exhibition, which opens June 9 in the Tretyakov gallery on Krymsky Val, will be presented 8 large-scale works Koshlyakov early 1990-х, painted with tempera, gouache, watercolor, sauce and charcoal on pieces of corrugated cardboard
Login for subscribers
- 1. Mark Rothko$86,83 million
- 2. Kazimir Malevich$85,81 million
- 3. Wassily Kandinsky$41,6 million
- 4. Marc Chagall$28,45 million
- 5. Chaim Soutine$28,16 million
- 6. Alexei Jawlensky$18,59 million
- 7. Valentin Serov$14,51 million
- 8. Nicolas de Staël$12,12 million
- 9. Nicholas Roerich$12,09 million
- 10. Natalia Goncharova$10,88 million
- 11. Nicolai Fechin$10,84 million
- 12. Tamara de Lempicka$8,48 million
- 13. Ilya Repin$7,43 million
- 14. Konstantin Somov$7,33 million
- 15. Ilya Mashkov$7,25 million
- 16. Boris Kustodiev$7,07 million
- 17. Vasily Polenov$6,34 million
- 18. Yuri Annenkov$6,27 million
- 19. Vasily Vereshchagin$6,15 million
- 20. Zinaida Serebriakova$5,85 million
- 21. Ilya Kabakov$5,83 million
- 22. Alexander Yakovlev$5,56 million
- 23. Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine$5,37 million
- 24. Ivan Aivazovsky$5,34 million
- 25. Vladimir Borovikovsky$5,02 million
- 26. Alexander Rodchenko$4,5 million
- 27. Sonia Delaunay$4,34 million
- 28. Mikhail Nesterov$4,30 million
- 29. Konstantin Makovsky$4,20 million
- 30. Vera Rockline$4,04 million
- 31. Paul Kuznecov$3,97 million
- 32. Boris Grigoriev$3,72 million
- The icon of the mother of God Cinova with scenes of the life of the 19th century
- Ai auction
- Selling (making) icons from the masters of Zlatoust
- Painting, oil on canvas, 1915, Ballistica.
- Could you tell me the icon
- Felix-Lev Zbarsky
- Картины, атрибуция и оценка
- Of The Holy Virgin
- Икона Святой Никита Столпник, оценка с возможной продажей
- F. Z. Zakharov