The society Four Arts

1924-1931, Moscow

Members-учредители: S. A. Arakelian, E. M. Bebutov, L. A. Bruni, A. S. Glagoleva, I. S. Efimov, K. N. Istomin, A. E. Karev, A. I. Kravchenko, P. V. Kuznetsov, V. Lebedev, L. M. Lisitskiy, D. N. Lopatnikov, P. I. Lions, A. T. Matveev, P. V. Miturich, V. I. Mukhina, I. I. Nivinsky, . I. NISS-Гольдман, P. J. Peacock, K. S. Petrov-Водкин, A. Savinov, M. S. Saryan, . A. Tyrsa, . P. Ulyanov, P. S. Utkin, V. A. Tabor, I. M. Chaika.

the Members and exhibitors: I. P. Akimov, M. M. Axelrod, M. A. Arinin, M. S. askenazi, V. G. Bekhteev, G. S. Vereysky, Goncharov, M. E. horsman, L. D. Gudiashvili, E. G. Landau, E. V. Egorov, I. D. Ermakov, I. V. Zholtovsky, L. K. Ivanovsky, V. I. Kashkin, I. V. Klyun, M. V. Kuznetsov, . N. The kupreyanov, S. I. Lobanov, K. S. Malevich, Z. J. Mostov (Matveeva-Мостова), V. M. Midler, V. A.'s milashevsky, B. V. Milovidov, A. P. Mogilevsky, P. I. Neradovsky, A. P. Ostroumova-Лебедева, . I. Pamalican, I. A. Puni, V. F. Reidemeister, M. S. Rodionov, . B. Rosenfeld, S. M. R., V. F. Ryndin, . J. Simonovich-Ефимова, . I. Simon, M. M. Sinyakova-Уречина, A. A. Soloveichik, A. I. Stolpnikova, A. I. Tamanyan, . Tarasov, Tarkhanov, V. P. Fedorenko, . P. Feofilaktov, A. V. Fonvizin, V. F. Franchetti, R. B. Frankel-Манюссон, I. I. Chekmazov, . M. Chernyshev, V. D. Shitikov, S. M. shore, I. A. Spinel, V. A. Shchuko, A. V. Shchusev, V. M. Usticke, A. B. Yakovlev and others.

Exhibitions: 1-я — 1925 (Moscow) — 3-я — 1929 (Moscow); 1928 (Leningrad)

Based on the initiative of former members of associations "Blue rose" and "World of art". Artists proclaimed the priority of the highest professional skill and emotional content of the work. The object of the Society was the study of the specifics and interaction of various art forms, as well as the development of planning principles, monumental propaganda, the interior decoration of public buildings.

At the organizational meeting by the Chairman of the society elected P. V. Kuznetsov, his Deputy — V. A. Tabor, Secretary — K. N. Istomin. In 1928 the Charter was adopted, which stated: "with the aim of active participation in socialist construction and the development of revolutionary culture, Society "Four arts" brings together within the RSFSR artists working in painting, sculpture, architecture and graphics, setting its task to promote the growth of artistic skill and culture, fine arts scientific by-исследовательской and practical work of its members and dissemination of artistic-технических of knowledge."

the Society had its own premises; meetings were held alternately in the workshops of its members. In addition to addressing current issues on which meetings were held with writers and poets, arranged literary readings and musical evenings. Was designed by mark (sketch A. I. Kravchenko) and the flag of the Society (by sketch E. M. Bebutova). Flanked by an exhibition jury.

the First exhibition was opened in April 1925 at the State Museumof fine arts in Moscow with the support of gakhn. 28 artists submitted works 215 (published catalogue); the opening was made by the people's Commissar of education A. V. Lunacharsky. At the opening on Sunday the exhibition was held performances of musical ensembles.

the Second exhibition was organized with the support of the Art Department Glavnauka in November 1926 in the halls of the State Historical Museum; 72 423 artist presented works (published catalogue). The exhibition has received overall positive reviews in the press. Critic I. Ephedra wrote: "the share of the group in formally artistic sense is determined by the presence in it of a fair amount of great masters that form the core of this Association. The participation of these artists, well-established and prominent before the revolution, perhaps, is the main interest of the group. Especially strong in this sense, the graphics 'sector' of society." He, then noting the best artists of the exhibition (P. V. Kuznetsov, V. A. Tabor, A. I. Kravchenko, L. A. Bruni, P. I. lions, P. V. Miturich, P. J. Peacock, I. M. Chaika), summarized: "Thematically, the exhibition creates the impression too "parnassian" attitude of the whole group to life. Of almost 400 works the vast majority of shows about immersion in the landscape, the admiration of nature, and great sympathy for the still life... very few exceptions the whole exhibition is thematically linked with our time is very weak allusions, devoid of wit and brightness thickly scooped life" ("Soviet art", 1926, No. 10. P. 28-32). Similar to the characterization given by F. Roginsky: "If you approach the "4-arts" as an art Association, it can be described as grouping, although with a rather high degree of artistic culture, but standing where-то aside from modernity, outside of it. This is determined not only by plot basis, i.e. lack of connection in the plots of the current life and not only on the primary mood, but even on formal grounds, do not contain any visible elements, capable of thinking creatively to come up and move the Association" (Pravda, 1926, November 6).

response In the Society "4 art" published a Declaration which defended its own principles: "the Artist shows the spectator, first of all, the artistic quality of their work. In that capacity expresses the artist's attitude to the world around him... In the Russian tradition, consider the most appropriate for the artistic culture of our time pictorial realism. Our work is characterized by subjects. So we did not call his paintings. The choice of the plot characterizes the artistic tasks that occupy the artist. In this sense, the plot is only a pretext to the creative transformation of material into artistic form..." (Yearbook of literature and art in 1929).

After the second exhibition it was decided to show the best works from the first two exhibitions in Leningrad, complementing the exhibition of the Leningrad artists. After negotiations with the Director of the State Russian Museum P. I. Neradovsky the Society was granted the lower halls of the Museum. On March 3, 1928, the opening of the exhibition@the semicolon was attended by 51 artist, exhibited 284 works (published catalogue).Artists-ленинградцы (A. E. Karev, V. Lebedev, P. I. lions, K. S. Petrov-Водкин, . A. Tyrsa) also represented the Society at the exhibition "Modern Leningrad artistic groups" (1928/1929).

the Third (last) of the Moscow exhibition "4 art" was held in may 1929 in the halls of the Moscow state University on moss street; was attended by 49 artists, exhibited 304 (published catalogue). She received a number of sharply critical assessments in the media. Thus, the AHR magazine "art into the masses" (1929, №№3-4. P. 52) wrote: "Society "4 art" is among those that, more and more isolating itself from public influence, become narrow shop, with features of aristocratic isolation. the characteristic feature of the last exhibition "4 art" is a significant strengthening of the mystical and pointless wing of society... What is the outcome of this exhibition? In-первых, this exhibition confirms that artists who do not draw their strength from effective social motives, will inevitably fade... Society "4 of art", having as its motto the struggle for quality and new style, within a narrow cehovin and utter disregard for public-политической the installation of the country's Councils, speculates it, giving their achievements in universal quality and method."

Despite the criticism, the Society participated in large group exhibitions "everyday life of the children of the Soviet Union" (August 1929), two traveling exhibitions organized by the people's Commissariat Glaviskusstvo (1929, Moscow; 1930, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Sverdlovsk, Perm, Ufa, Samara, Saratov, Penza). However, criticism increased. In April 1930 the magazine "Art into the masses" came out with the article "the Art of smuggling, or who and how to serve "4 art"" (1930, № 4. S. 10-12), in which members of Society were accused of "bourgeois," "social passivity", "idealistic formalism" addiction "decadent and retrogressive forms of Western art".

the resolution sector of arts education on the report of the Moscow art societies, adopted in the late 1930-х, called for a "radical restructuring" of Society and "cleansing its ranks". Under the influence of the harsh criticism Society self-destructed. In early 1931 a group of its former members (K. N. Istomin, V. M. Midler, M. S. Rodionov, V. F. Ryndin, A. V. Fonvizin, . M. Chernyshev and others) filed an application for membership in AHR.

Sources:

1. The struggle for realism in visual arts 20-х years: Materials, documents, memories. M., 1962. S. 230-235.
2. Exhibition of Soviet art. Reference. Vol. 1. 1917-1932. M., 1965. C. 153-154, 179-180, 261, 294-295.
3. T. Kotovich In. Encyclopedia of Russian avant-garde. Minsk, 2003. P. 389-390.
4. Omega And. Art smuggling, or who and how to serve "4 art" Art to the masses. 1930, No. 4 (April). S. 10-12.
5. D. Y. Severyukhin, Leikind O. L. The Golden age of art associations in Russia and the Soviet Union. Reference. SPb., 1992. P. 341-343.
6. Ephedra I. E. "Four arts" and their exhibition of Soviet art, 1926, No. 10. S. 28-32.

Lissitsky, El1890 -1941
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