Jack of Diamonds

1911-1917, Moscow

Members-учредители: p. P. Konchalovsky, A. V. Kuprin, I. I. Mashkov, V. V. Rozhdestvensky.

full members and members-соревнователи: E. A. Agafonov, K. K. Alekseev, . Altman, V. S. Bart, A. A. Baryshnikov, A. N. Bagul, , V. G. Bekhteev, G. M. Blumenfeld, K. L. Boguslavskaya, S. I. Baudouin-де-Куртенэ, L. A. Bruni, V. D. Burliuk, D. D. Burliuk, M. V. Verevkina, K. Goldfarb, V. Konorski, . S. Goncharov, A. V. Grishchenko, A. M. Humilia, . M. Davydov, V. K. Valleys, S. I. Dymshits-Толстая, V. Cossacks, V. V. Kamensky, K. V. Kandaurov, V. V. Kandinsky, G. F. Kosminski, S. M. kevorkova, I. V. Klyun, S. A. Klyushnikov, E. K. Kroner, . Kuznetsov, . I. Kulbin, M. F. Larionov, M. V. LeBlanc, A. V. Lentulov, S. I. Lobanov, K. S. Malevich, I. A. Malyutin, A. T. Matveev, I. M. Men'kov, A. F. Mikuli, A. I. Milman, M. I. Mikheev, A. P. Mogilevsky, A. A. Morgunov, A. A. Osmerkin, D. V. Petrovsky, V. E. Pestel, A. P. Pligin, I. V. Pozharsky, L. S. Popova, E. S. Potekhina, I. A. Puni, . E. Rogovin, M. S. Rodionov, O. V. Rozanova, V. V. Savinkov, A. M. Samoilov, I. A. Skuja, A. F. Sofronova, L. Survage Was (L. Storage), B. A. Tacca, V. E. Tatlin, L. G. Turchenko, . A. Udaltsova, R. R. Falk, G. V. Fedorov, I. S. Fedotov, A. V. Fonvizin, B. G. Friedenson, P. A. Harybin, V. M. Khodasevich, Y. I. Holmberg-Крон, M. Z. Chagall, E. Shiman, . I. Fitting, V. R. eyges, A. Exter, H. I. Epstein, A. G. Jawlensky and others.

Foreign exhibitors: E. bossy, J. the Marriage, F. Valloton, M. Vlaminck, A., Gleize, R. Delaunay, A. Derain, van Dongen K., J. Iovino, sh, Kamoun, A. Kanoldt, Э.-Л. Kirchner, O. Martin, F. Leger, M. Letowska, A. Le Fauconnier, A. Matiss, A. Macke, F. Marc, O. Muller, G. Munter, Nauen, P. Picasso, A. Russo, P. Signac, E. Heckel and others.

Honorary members: V. I. Surikov, Sergei Shchukin.

Exhibitions: 1910 (Moscow); 1-я (1912, Moscow) — 5-я (1917, Moscow); 1927 (Moscow; retrospective)

the Largest exhibition of avant-garde art Association 1910-х years; in the basis of the creative concept was the passion for the primitive: popular prints, fine urban folklore (poster, sign, painting trays).

the Beginning of the Union was laid the same exhibition, held in December 1910 — January 1911 in the interior of the house Lewisson on Bolshaya Dmitrovka; initiated by D. D. Burliuk and M. F. Larionov. The name was coined M. F. Larionov: it resonated with the aesthetics of the lubok, there has been an attack on modern aestheticism, and the element of outrageousness ("diamonds diamonds" was called to the convicts, however, played upon the French interpretation of a playing card: Jack of diamonds — rascal or rogue); as he wrote later I. I. Mashkov, "name like most of the participants of this exhibition is the fact that it was caused in Moscow by the then well-fed bourgeoisie, the merchants, and the nobility a sense of wonder, astonishment, disgust".

At the end of 1911 a group of participants of the exhibition appealed to the city authorities for permission to establish a Society of artists "Jack of diamonds", whose goal was to "spreadmodern concepts concerning the fine arts". The Charter was approved on November 1, 1911. The Chairman of the Board elected p. P. Konchalovsky (later it was replaced A. V. Kuprin); Secretary — I. I. Mashkov, Treasurer — A. V. Kuprin. The composition of the Board in different years were included V. V. Rozhdestvensky, A. V. Lentulov, R. R. Falk, M. S. Rodionov. By the end of the first year of activity the society had 20 active members and 50 members-соревнователей (exhibitors). Honorary members were elected Shchukin and V. I. Surikov.

Group M. F. Larionov (N. S. Goncharov, V. S. Bart, . E. Rogovin, I. A. Skuja) the company has not entered and organized independent exhibition under the name "Donkey's tail".

Only, the Association has conducted 5 exhibitions. Under the Charter of 1911, a participant could be anyone who made a monetary contribution; this has led to the lack of aesthetic integrity and heterogeneity of the artistic level of the exhibitions.

the First exhibition opened on 23 January 1912 in the hall of the Economic society of the Moscow military district. It was visited by 8 thousand persons; about 20 works were sold to the famous Moscow collectors, which was regarded as success. Subsequent exhibitions of "Jack of diamonds" held in the salon on Bolshaya Dmitrovka in February — March 1913 in Moscow and April — may of that year took place in St. Petersburg 2-я exhibition; in February 1914 in Moscow — 3-я; in November — December 1916 — 4-я; in November — December 1917 — 5-я; all accompanied by a edition concise directory.

"Jack of diamonds" was not a clearly articulated theoretical program, but all of the artists were claiming the priority of a purely formal artistic problems, opposing equally the Association of traveling art exhibitions, the Union of Russian artists "World of art". In his artistic practice bubnovaya relied on the experience of P. Cezanne, and contemporary trends of Western European painting — cubism, Fauvism, expressionism, abstractionism. In painting the dominant features were the plastic expressiveness of color, increased expression, the development of tactile-ритмической dynamics, a deliberate deformation of the forms.

In 1913, the Society published a collection of articles "on the contemporary state of Russian painting".

Their views members of the Society actively promoted also in the debates which were held in 1912-1913 at the Polytechnic Museum with the participation of artists, poets-футуристов, writers in various fields. In the first debate on 12 February 1912 listened to reports . I. Kulibina "New free art as the basis of life", V. V. Kandinsky "Age of great spirituality" (read N. I. Kulbinym), D. D. Burliuk "On cubism and other directions in painting"; official opponent made M. A. Voloshin, the unofficial — constant ideological opponents of bubnovaya M. F. Larionov and . S. Goncharov. Noticeable public outcry had a debate on 1 February 1913 concerning the assassination picture I. E. Repina "Ivan the terrible and his son Ivan on 16 November 1581" in the Tretyakov gallery. However, the main action of the disputes were not the reports and the debates that often took the pointed nature of the "throwing heavy glasses andhitting the pitcher on the head"@the semicolon after one of these debates (19 Feb 1914) A. A. Morgunov was excluded from the Society for the insult done to J. A. Tugendhold.

since 1914, the Society gradually lost its internal unity. From 1916 he began to leave the leading masters: p. P. Konchalovsky and I. I. Mashkov moved to the "World of art", in the autumn of 1917 followed by the A. V. Kuprin, A. V. Lentulov, A. I. Milman, V. V. Rozhdestvensky, R. R. Falk. Society meeting 14 (27) October was elected Chairman K. S. Malevich, the society joined the group V. E. Tatlin. However, 18 (31) October and followers V. E. Tatlin also left the Union without support its request to change its name.

as a result, In the last exhibition did not one artist among the founders of "knave of diamonds". At the closing of the last exhibition 3 (16) December 1917 performed D. D. Burliuk, V. V. Kamensky and K. S. Malevich report on "Fence painting". The activities of the Association ceased.

Basic - "Jack of diamonds" participated in the exhibitions "World of art" (1917-1918, 1921, 1922), became its Chairman I. I. Mashkov. In 1925, former members of the "Jack of diamonds", teaming up with young artists from among the disciples and followers, founded the society of Moscow painters, later joined the Society of Moscow artists. In 1927, in the Tretyakov gallery was organized a retrospective exhibition "Jack of diamonds", which was shown 72 the works of 8 artists — founders and the leading masters of the Society (N. Goncharova, P. P. Konchalovsky, A. V. Kuprin, M. F. Larionov, A. V. Lentulov, Mashkov, V. V. Rozhdestvensky, R. Falk).

the activities of the Association devoted to the monograph: G. G. Pospelov, the knave of diamonds. M., 1990.

Retrospective exhibitions were held in the State Russian Museum (2004) and the State Tretyakov gallery (2005).

Sources:

1. Apollo. Fine art and architecture. Glossary of terms. M., 1997. P.81-82.
2. Exhibition of Soviet art. Reference. Vol. 1. 1917-1932. M., 1965. S. 8, 204.
3. T. Kotovich In. Encyclopedia of Russian avant-garde. Minsk, 2003. P. 58-59.
4. G. G. Pospelov Jack of diamonds. M., 1990.
5. D. Y. Severyukhin, Leikind O. L. The Golden age of art associations in Russia and the Soviet Union. Reference. SPb., 1992. P.30-34.

Chagall, Marc1887 -1985
Kron, Yuliya1882 -1956
Malyutin, Ivan Andreevich1891 (1889 (?)) -1932
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