Айвазовский И.К.
Шишкин И.И.
Маковский А.В.
Маковский В.Е.
Кончаловский П.П.
Фальк Р.Р.
ARTinvestment.RU покупает работы
ведущих художников XIX-XX вв.
Нестеров М.В.
Плавинский Д.П.
Бенуа А.Н.
Немухин В.Н.
Серов В.А.
Зверев А.Т.
Саврасов А.К.

"Art-эксперты": what is behind this definition?
ARTinvestment.RU   26 июня 2020

Explain, what is the expertise of the art and why so many confuse art-экспертов with art-консультантами

Recent material AI, dedicated to the professional art-консультантам, provoked a lively and substantive discussion, as well as the maximum in recent months, the number of shares on social networks. The only negative point was invisible from sight substitution of concepts: some of our interlocutors called the material "articles about art-экспертах". And if so, then we need to clarify the conceptual apparatus of art-рынка, as experts in the field of art — representatives of a completely separate, rare and respected professions and carriers of unique knowledge.

To comprehensive examination of a work of art must pass three completely different procedures. Consider these procedures separately — in the order in which they are held, — and at the end decide whether this knowledge be combined in one person and as a novice collector to recognize the skilled forgery: forgery in man, whose business card proudly stands "art-эксперт".

1. Technological expertise

the Purpose of technological expertise — the definition of the age of the work and its individual parts. It is no secret that the falsification of art are often used canvases unknown (cheaper) artists of the desired period or compositions of colors, typical for the time of creation. Technological examination is designed to determine not only the Dating of the canvas and the paint, but also a time when paints were mixed with each other. A similar procedure is performed in special laboratories and require experts for a specific education — as a rule, chemical.

Types of modern technological expertise:

• Macro

Many novice collectors believe that this step is redundant, but the human eye is not able to consider the microscopic details of a work of art. Unlike the lens of a special camera.

• Infrared reflectography

Reads "annual rings" work, in other words, reveals everything that has been written by the artist before the top layer. The most entertaining part of the work: we see how the work was born of art from the sketch. As a rule, the artist in the process of changing the original design can significantly change the composition, resulting in the primary graphic details of the lower layer are different from painted. If they match perfectly — are beginning to sound the alarm. And sometimes under a layer of paint "artist of the XIX century" can be detected and Soviet tractor.

• examination under ultraviolet radiation

Is to help the next stages of chemical analysis, mostly showing layers of applied paint and place the subsequent restoration.

• X-ray-флуоресцентный analysis

The method of determining the chemical structure of dyes (without sampling and possible pinholes of the work). Simply put: each element glows at-разному. The result of this phase can be identified paints or lacquers, which appeared much later of the death of the artist.

• Spectroscopy, Fourier-преобразованием

Defines the age that showeda previous analysis. The better the equipment, the more accurate the Dating. This method defines a precision of up to 10 years. However, while we miss the main thing: the paint can be made according to historical technologies, superimposed on each other in accordance with the strokes of an artist and to be a very expensive fake.

• Chemical analysis of the binder

Perhaps the most advanced to date research, allowing to determine the time of mixing colors together. Applied with a selection of microprobe, and the accuracy of the analysis period, creating a piece of art can be up to several years.

2. Art examination

Assume that technological examination confirmed the age of the work, dated by years the work of the alleged author. Then (and only then!) you should make an examination of art criticism. The person skilled in the art, having art education, is required to determine the "artist's brush", i.e., whether painted on canvas, hand the alleged author. Art historical examination, and in turn share the actual expertise and attribution: in the first case study work is known for the catalogues and exhibitions, and the task of the critic — to admit that in front of us instead of a copy. Attribution as the process is somewhat more complicated: we are talking about the newly found works, nowhere hitherto not encountered, with the result that the expert confirms (attributeset) a piece of art by a particular artist, and then the subject can be introduced into scientific circulation.

3. Financial expertise

If both of the first examination were successful for the owner, the last step is a professional financial expertise — in other words, the evaluation of a work of art. It is no less complicated, requiring special training: the collector, for example, will be assessed from the point of view of the purchase and the gallerist — with the position of sale. Sometimes the client can call deliberately understated the value of his work and immediately offered to buy it. Usually the next day, the job appears in the directory of art-дилера the price is much higher. In an international environment valuation of a work of art are carried out by people with economic or financial education in the arts, and the result of their work is the identification of six values. Here they are:

• current market value FAIR MARKET VALUE (the price range is depending on work size and some other parameters — date or period of creation, the plot, the provenance (history of existence, including exhibiting) of works, etc., in some cases, the reference data is taken similar works of artists of the circle of the author);

• the insurance cost of a RETAIL REPLACEMENT VALUE (estimate to work with insurance companies — for example, in the case of exhibiting artwork by a third party or in preparation);

• operating value MARKETABLE CASH VALUE (the actual cost to participate in the auction, including transportation and royalties in the sale);

• current liquidation value (value if required sale promptly);

• current collateral value (required in case of placement as security Deposit in a foreign Bank orcollateral of the company);

• the forecast of capitalization (determined in the case of works in private hands, subject to proper management, usually — with a list of recommendations for further work).

Similar work is carried out on the basis of existing precedents auction of the artist or investigational work, and in the absence of such — on indirect indicators (the marketing activity of the author, the current state of the market, current market pricing, etc.). Then use the logarithmic regression, taking into account the correlation of the currency of the transaction, the current inflation rate and the indicators of the artist from the time of purchase.

Myths of the world expert:

• you can Forge anything, even the results of research and the signature of the critic.

Review: it's true. However, as one of the participants, AI expertise expertise and brains you need to have your own. Therefore, the collector should always conduct their own independent analysis: to see the work of the artist, to meet with the critic, attributeremoved work (to know whether he signed or stamped without his knowledge) to see the availability of work in the catalogs and Museum collections. The most common types of fakes in sight: you are often offered a "masterpiece" can be found in the adjacent Museum. Expert organizations themselves are struggling with false conclusions. For several years AI publishes staff identified by GRC named after academician I. E. Grabar fake expert opinion, allegedly written and signed by experts of GRC, while not actually having to do with them.

• Contemporary art is forged.

Review: do so many believe, based on the possibility of appeal to the artist directly. However, not everyone knows that the largest Creator of duplicate work may be the artist himself. Explain that often a series of older works starts successfully sold, and the author copies itself, Dating the work so that it is much older than the real establishment. He put today's date — and the market would work replica, repetition and estimated it in the range of 20-50 % of the desired early episodes.

• the Main reason for the lack of expertise — ignorance of the owner.

Review: not quite. Often, in anticipation of "mixed ancestry" of the work, the owner just afraid to carry it for examination: in the West, much of what is being evaluated, shall be published in the catalogue of fakes or stolen works. Thus, the market is traveling a significant amount of work that change owners, while repeatedly increasing in value. They are like drifting underwater mines, which are easier to get (buy and resell), than to try to leave (otherwise you will catch the next wave).

• Work can a substitute during examination.

Review: to make life easier for the rogues, you need to follow a few simple guidelines: maximum pre-alert the lab about the name of artist and send the most detailed photo in high resolution, and leave the work from the experts for a long enough period of time.If all to do quickly and not apply in advance, you will not substitute. In Western laboratories by the way, all recorded video, and the owner sees the process of examination on the monitor of the office of the company.

Advanced material AI 2011 on the topic of fraud in the art, it is absolutely relevant today, you can read here.

General review AI:

unfortunately, almost every second young functionary of the art market today call themselves "art-экспертом" often in making this determination on a business card. To define, what exactly is the competence of his examination for such a person is very difficult — because the result of his expert work in the domestic sense is the word "sell", but not "rate".

to understand the level of professionalism "art-эксперта", novice collector you first need to clarify the types of examinations. If he'll call all three and will offer the options of companies, you can cautiously begin to trust. Perhaps he — beginner art-консультант, who was a little confused in concepts. We — is always ready to help him figure it out.

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