The most expensive artists in the world. Top auction results
ARTinvestment.RU   16 ноября 2017

The rating of the most expensive artists in the world headed by Leonardo Da Vinci, and ends with Paul Cezanne. The difference in price between the first and last positions of the ranking of the top-24 — 389,8 million dollars
  1. $450,3 million Leonardo da Vinci. The Savior of the world. About 1500
  2. $179,4 million Pablo Picasso. The women of Algiers (version "On"). 1955
  3. $170,4 million Amedeo Modigliani. Reclining Nude. 1917-1918
  4. $144 million Qi Baishi. Twelve landscapes. 1925
  5. $142,4 million Francis bacon. Three sketch Lusien Freud. 1969
  6. $141,3 million Alberto Giacometti. Pointing man. 1947
  7. the $119.9 million Edvard Munch. Creek. 1895
  8. $110.5 million Jean-Мишель Basquiat. Untitled. 1982
  9. $105.5 million Andy Warhol. Silver car crash (Dual accident). 1963
  10. $95,4 million Roy Lichtenstein. Nurse. 1964
  11. $87.9 million Gustav Klimt. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Бауэр II. 1912
  12. $86.9 million mark Rothko. Orange, red, yellow. 1961
  13. $85,81 million Kazimir Malevich. Suprematist composition. 1916
  14. $84.7 million Claude Monet. Water lilies in bloom. OK.1914 – 1917
  15. to $84.2 million for Barnett Newman. Black fire I. 1961
  16. the$82.5 million Vincent van Gogh. Portrait of Dr. Gachet. 1890
  17. $80.7 million Henri Matisse. Reclining odalisque with magnolias. 1923
  18. $78.1 million Auguste Renoir. Moulin de La Galette (Le Moulin de la Galette). 1876
  19. 76.7 million dollars. Peter Paul Rubens. The massacre of the innocents. OK. 1609-1611
  20. $71 million to Constantin Brancusi. Dainty girl (Portrait of Nancy Cunard). The idea 1928. Casting 1932
  21. $70.5 million CY Twombly. Untitled (new-Йорк). 1968
  22. $70,06 million Fernand Leger. The contrast of forms. 1913
  23. $66,3 million Willem de Kooning. Untitled XXV. 1977
  24. $60.5 million Paul Cezanne. Drapery, jug and kompotnitsa. OK. 1893-1894

the Rating is made on the basis of open auction results. For a basis it is taken results taking into account the buyer's premium (Buyers Premium), expressed in dollars (the figures shown in European auctions, i.e. in pounds or euros, converted into dollars at the exchange rate on the trade date).

1. $450,3 million Leonardo da Vinci. The Savior of the world. About 1500

Probably next time we will rule this place very soon. $450 312 500 — is a record even for years, and probably for all the future decade.

moreover, according to rumors, the current record in the field of private sales — $300 million for a painting by Paul Gauguin), so "the Savior of the world" Leonardo Da Vinci — is the most expensive painting in the world in which-то certain segment of the art-рынка, and in an absolute sense.

Surprisingly, the historic sale took place in conditions far from ideal information and background. In-первых, regarding the attribution of this work among experts was not a complete consensus. But many experts agreed with the arguments that it is Leonardo, not his disciple Giovanni Boltraffio (Giovanni Boltraffio), and this "broad consensus" for Christie's and buyer was enough. In-вторых, the circumstances of finding this thing was like a fairy tale: in 1958 it was bought at Sotheby's for 45 pounds as a thing by a pupil of Leonardo, and then, in 2000-х, bought at auction for about $10 000, then sold to a dealer Willow Bouvier for $80 000 000, and he has resold the "Savior of the world" billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev seems to be $127 500 000. And it's — in-третьих. The sale took place amid months of litigation between Rybolovlev and Bouvier. Billionaireblames the dealer that he was with him not being honest and sold his paintings at an exorbitant price. Leonardo was a rare exception in the series of unfortunate (from a financial point of view) shopping. But what!

the auction house Christie's held a great job for the promotion of his chief in the modern history of the lot. "Savior of the world" managed to watch tens of thousands of spectators. Among them was actor Leonardo DiCaprio. According to family legend, it was named in honor of the artist, and will soon play the masters in the biographical tape. In 2017, the production company, Paramount has acquired the film rights to the book by Walter Isaacson, "Leonardo da Vinci". High interest in Leonardo in recent years, and future movie about him, even with DiCaprio, of course, impossible to consider the priority of explanation of phenomenal auction prices, but as an incidental factor — completely.

2. $179,4 million Pablo Picasso. The women of Algiers (version "On"). 1955

Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) — founder of cubism, an outstanding painter, sculptor and ceramist, had a powerful impact on the development of twentieth century art.

may 11, 2015 for the painting "the women of Algiers (version "O")" in 1955, was paid $179,4 million (including Commission).

the famous painting "the women of Algiers (version "O")" refers to a series of canvases painted by Pablo Picasso, from December 1954 to February 1955-го based on the famous eponymous paintings of eugène Delacroix. "Algerian women" Delacroix, belonging to the collection of the Louvre, at the time, made Picasso very strong impression, he repeatedly said that he wants to write his version. And this series was dedicated to the memory of friend and rival in the art workshop of Henri Matisse, who died in November 1954-го. As Picasso said "when Matisse died he left his odalisques to me as an inheritance." All of Picasso's works in this series are numbered by Latin letters from "A" to "O". Thus, the painting sold for a record price, is the latest, the fifteenth in the series.

the Work of Picasso "the women of Algiers (version "O")" comes from the collection of Victor and Sally Ganz (Victor and Sally Ganz). The couple from new-Йорка, despite a modest income, managed for fifty years to create the collection at auction in 1997 brought $206,5 million on the purchase of all these spouses Ganz spent a total of about $2 million. One of the first in their collection a portrait of Marie-Терез Walter by Picasso (the famous painting "the Dream"): in 1941, Victor Ganz bought it for $7 000, and in 1997-м sold for $48.4 mln As for the work "the women of Algiers (version "O")," that its preliminary estimate at auction in 1997 was $10-12 million, the hammer price reached $31.9 million, Almost twenty years later the result "of Algerian women" 5.6 times higher than in 1997.

3. $170,4 million Amedeo Modigliani. Reclining Nude. 1917-1918

On a thematic auction Christie's "the Muse of the artist" which took place on 9 November 2015year in new-Йорке, painting Amedeo Modigliani "Reclining Nude" (1917-1918) was sold for a record $170,405 million Estimated lot, in the neighborhood of $100 million (the exact estimate was not disclosed). This result raised a record amount for the works of Modigliani by as much as $100 million: up to 9 November, the most expensive work of Modigliani was the sculpture "Head", sold at Sotheby's in November 2014-го for $70.7 million

the Record of the painting "Reclining Nude" can be considered phenomenal because none of the pictorial work of the artist never and did not come close to these figures: previously, only eight of his paintings to auction crossed the level of $30 million Since 2010, price rating painting Modigliani headed "Nude sitting on a divan" sold for $68,96 million including the fee of the auction house Sotheby's. Now, however, Modigliani confidently entered the "club" of artists, whose works are sold for more than $100 million, where the company he is Pablo Picasso, Francis bacon, Alberto Giacometti, Edvard Munch and Andy Warhol.

the Painting "Reclining Nude" in the same way as the previous record holder — "Nude seated on a sofa", was purchased directly from the artist by his friend — Parisian collector and art dealer Leopold Zborowsky (Léopold Zboroswki).

If we are to believe Christie's, "Reclining Nude" was among several written for Zborowsky Nude, which caused a scandal at the first and only exhibition of Modigliani in the gallery Bertha Weil in Paris in 1917. Zborowsky to attract visitors decided to put several Nudes in the window of the gallery ("Reclining Nude"). At the window immediately crowded by passers-by. Unfortunately, vis-a-vis the gallery was a police station. Servants of the order interested crowd gathered on the other side of the street, and called the owner of the gallery in the precinct. According to Bertha Weil, Commissioner under the laughter obrativshis in the area, "poor devils," he ordered her "take off all this stuff". That had to perform. The exhibition closed before it really opened, and the guests who came to the Vernissage, helped to remove paintings from the exhibition.

"Reclining Nude" often published in catalogues and monographs about Modigliani, she has participated in exhibitions at the Centre for fine arts (Brussels), Stedelijk Museum (Amsterdam), the State Museum of contemporary art (Paris), the Tate and the Royal Academy of arts (both galleries — London), MOMA (new-Йорк) and the Royal Palace in Milan.

the Work was included in the collection of Gianni Mattioli (Mattioli Gianni), one of the leading Italian collectors, and at auction Christie's pattern set by his daughter, art historian Laura Mattioli Rossi (Laura Mattioli Rossi).

At auction November 9 for "Reclining Nude" traded for at least six contenders for 9 minutes. The winner was a buyer who made bets on the phone. After a while it became known that the work was bought by Chinese billionaire Liu Izani (Liu Yiqian). The new owner announced that it plans to move her to Shanghai, where together with his wife Wang Wei (Wang Wei), he has opened two private Museum. In the world Liu Izani known as the "Mogul-таксист". A teenager in the troubled years of the "cultural revolution" Liu Ican really spinning the wheel on the streets of Shanghai. In 1980-90-х he earned a fortune playing the stock exchange real estate and pharmaceuticals. In 2015, the state of Liu Izana was estimated at $1.5 billion.

4. $144 million Qi Baishi.Twelve landscapes. 1925

on 17 December 2017 at the Beijing Poly International auction was an absolute record auction sales of Chinese painting. A series of ink drawings by Chinese artist Qi Baishi (1864-1957), entitled "Twelve landscapes", Dating from 1925, was sold for 931,5 million yuan, or $144 million.

Qi Baishi — master of Chinese national painting Guohua — was born in 1864 (according to another version — in 1860) year in a poor peasant family. Although Qi Baishi since childhood showed interest in the work, up to forty years, the main source of his earnings served as a carpentry business. But here his artistic skills found an outlet: he cut out wooden figures of animals, snuff, woodblock prints popular prints. And not threw with painting and calligraphy. Only at the end of the fifties Qi Baishi settled in Beijing and devoted himself entirely to painting. In his declining years, Qi Baishi, and has not received professional art education, he achieved, nevertheless, recognition at the national level: in 1953 the Ministry of culture of China awarded him the title of "Great artist of the Chinese people". Qi Baishi died in 1957 at the age of 93 years.

Today it is a national Chinese love for their "great artist" and expressed in monetary terms. For many years, Qi Baishi is among the most expensive Chinese artists — as of the total auction turnover, and price of individual works. For example, in may 2011 one of his works — "Long life, peaceful world" ("eagle on a pine tree") written in 1946 for Chiang Kai-shek, — was sold for 425,5 million yuan ($65 million). And in 2016, Qi Baishi was in third place on the auction turnover in the world after his countryman Zhang Daciana and Pablo Picasso. Now Qi Baishi became the first Chinese artist who turned the auction level of $100 million.

"Twelve landscapes" by Qi Baishi in blue, grey, brown and pink colours represent the Chinese mountains, villages and trees in bloom. The size of each of the 12 works impressive — 1.8 meters tall and almost two feet wide. The artist's painting is quite traditional, what-видимому, happy Chinese collectors-миллионеров. Exactly who purchased "Twelve landscapes" for a record amount, the auction house did not disclose.

5. $142,4 million Francis bacon. Three sketch Lusien Freud. 1969

At the auction of postwar and contemporary art Christie's November 12, 2013 the Francis bacon triptych "Three sketch Lusien Freud" was sold for a staggering sum — $142,4 million Such a high price — record for the artist and for the art-рынка — was more unexpected than natural. Before the auction, the triptych was estimated at $85 million (the exact estimate was provided upon request). The previous record for bacon's works, kept since 2008, was just about $85 million, to be precise, it was $86,281 million so Much at the auctionSotheby's in new-Йорке 14 may 2008 paid for "Triptych" 1976, Roman Abramovich.

to reach the price level of art-бума, and even exceed it, the auction house had to get is really an outstanding work. Triptych "Three sketch Lusien Freud" in 1969, this definition is consistent.

In-первых, one of the triptych you join two masters of postwar art at the same time: bacon posed at least known his colleague Lusien Freud. Bacon and Freud met in 1945 and were friends for decades, often wrote to each other, but also competed professionally. "Three sketch Lusien Freud" was created within the walls of London's Royal College of art (their own bacon workshop at that time suffered from the fire).

In-вторых, it is one of only two triptychs of bacon, on which the model is depicted in full growth. The second triptych, 1966, was last exhibited in 1992, but it is unknown where he is now.

In-третьих, triptych very cheerful background — Sunny-желтый. Be positive to grim-сюрреалистичного the art of Francis bacon that, frankly, is not typical. What-то foreign analyst after record sales even call this color "gold color, magnetically acting on collectors."

Francis bacon believed this triptych of one of his best works@the semicolon, he was one of the most important exhibits on significant artist's retrospective at the Grand-Пале in 1971-1972. Later, in the mid 1970-х, part of the triptych were separated by almost 15 years. One of them was exhibited independently at the exhibition in the Tate in 1985. Bacon extremely negatively reacted to this division; under the picture is disjointed the left part of the triptych, he wrote: "a fragment of a triptych... and I believe that it is meaningless until it is reunited with two other fragments." Parts were again brought together in 1999 at the exhibition in new-Хэвене (Connecticut). And now all three of the growth of the portrait Lusiena Freud got a new buyer for $142,4 million Say that the triptych was bought by William Akvavella, perhaps, in the interests of the client.

6. $141,3 million Alberto Giacometti. Pointing man. 1947

Alberto Giacometti — is the most highly valued (literally) classic of world sculpture. His withered, almost fleshless figures, symbolizing the alienation and loneliness of man in the modern world, consistently achieve high prices at auction. Some time Giacometti was even ahead of all the painters together: 3 February 2010 the sculpture "Walking man I" was sold for £65 million ($104.3 million). This, incidentally, was the world's first auction item has passed the threshold of $100 million.

More than five years later, the sculpture "man Pointing" (1947) reached new heights auction: the outcome (including the fee) amounted to $141,3 million Is a record not only for Giacometti, but also for the entire market sculpture.

the Sculpture is "Pointing man" was conceived and executed Giacometti in 1947, just onenight. As the sculptor told his biographer in a few months for the new-Йорке was set to open its first 15 years of creative activity solo exhibition. Time was running out, and one October night he fashioned the first plaster model. Since it was made six casts and one printed copy. Followed in January 1948, the exhibition "Pointing man" has occupied a Central place in the exhibition next to the "Running man" and "Standing woman." The exhibition has made furore, Giacometti suddenly became the star of the new-йоркской postwar art-сцены.

Today the sculpture "Pointing man" is in the collections of MOMA, Tate Modern, and two museums. The remaining three instances are stored in private collections and collections of various assets. The one instance that was put up for auction, presumably, the only thing that was hand-painted by Giacometti. In 1953-м it was bought in the gallery of Pierre Matisse famous collectors Fred and Florence Olsen. Since 1970, the sculpture belonged to a private collection that was the first time in history put up for auction. As told organizers of the auction, they offered the owner a guarantee, but he refused, saying that if the item remains unsold, he will keep it. "He might be a little upset that she actually bought", — said the representative of Christie's.

Giacometti was one of the most exciting artists of the XX century. Man Giacometti left to himself, he does not need anyone, he has no reliance on God and his people is not looking for protection. Giacometti — a great humanitarian: his work tells us that people can only rely on the person that he is fully responsible for yourself and others. The figures of Giacometti's thin, nervous face, lively eyes and big feet: despite all the turmoil, they stand firmly on the ground.

7. $119,9 million Edvard Munch. Creek. 1895

on 2 may 2012, Edvard Munch's "the Scream" at Sotheby's auction was bought for $119 922 500. With this result pastel 1895 bypassed the work of Pablo Picasso "Nude on a background of green leaves and bust" (which, by the way, stayed at the top of the rankings two years without two days).

the Picture — one of the four existing versions written in the story, and only were in private hands (the other three are stored in Norwegian museums). It is unique because the frame made by the artist in red paint written his poem: "My friends proceeded further, / And I remained behind / Shivering with anxiety: / I felt a deafening Scream of Nature. E. M.".

the Work was put up for auction by Norwegian businessman Petter Olsen (Petter Olsen), the son of a friend, neighbor and patron of Munch Thomas Olsen (Thomas Olsen), acquired it in 1937. After the auction the former owner said that for him the meaning of the picture — is a meeting with death, but also, in the context of today, a frightening awareness of the damage that was caused to humanity and nature.

the Profit from the sale of paintings will partially go to create a Museum in Hvitsten (Norway), where once lived the Munch and Thomas Olsen@the semicolon in a future Museumwill house the collection of Petter Olsen, who is also engaged in the restoration of the house and Munch workshop.

the Price of the painting by Munch — is in all respects sverresborg. Before bidding on 1 may 2012, the most expensive pastels in the world was the work of Edgar Degas (Edgar Degas) "Resting dancer" (CA. 1879), earned $37 million on new-йоркских Sotheby's auction in November 2008. This record left far behind and Munch the previous record set by the painting "Vampire" in 1894, which brought $38.1 million at auction at Sotheby's in new-Йорке in November 2008 (the buyer is the Gagosian gallery).

8. $110,5 million Jean-Мишель Basquiat. Untitled. 1982

18 may 2017 a rating of the most expensive works when-либо sold at public auction, supplemented by the work of Jean-Мишеля Basquiat. At the auction of contemporary art Sotheby's work "untitled" written in oil pastel, acrylic and aerosol spray on canvas, was sold for $110.5 million the Buyer was a Japanese billionaire Osaka of Maesawa — passionate fan of modern art generally and Basquiat in particular. The previous record purchase Basquiat also made it: in 2016 other work "untitled" (1982) Maesawa purchased for $57.3 million, it Turns out that may 18, 2017, a record price for a work by Jean-Мишеля Basquiat has almost doubled.

Brand moskiewska the image not the mask, not the skull broke several records. In-первых, it became the most expensive work of the artist-американца. In-вторых, for the first time in history so many have paid for work of a black artist. And-третьих, painting "untitled" (1982) broke the record price among the works created after 1980. Not to mention the fact that with this sale Jean-Мишель Basquiat entered into a kind of club of artists whose works sold more than 100 million dollars. If Basquiat had lived to see this day, he would have been 57, but, alas, the fatal dose of heroin said otherwise: the artist passed away in a rock for many legendary Americans age 27 (like Hendrix, Joplin or Morrison).

it all started on the streets of new-Йорка where 17-летний Jean-Мишель ran away from his father and stepmother (the first failed escape attempt happened in 15 years). Mother Jean-Мишеля was in a psychiatric hospital when he was 13 years old, and spent in hospitals for the mentally ill most of his life. Father to son was not the case. However, it is not necessary to draw in the imagination is full of hardships and humiliation of the childhood of the future artist. He grew up with two sisters in a quite wealthy family (his father was a successful economist). Education Jean-Мишель got good, in my childhood I read a lot, fond of history, poetry and of course art. Even had membership in the Council of the Brooklyn Museum. Thanks dad-гаитянцу and mom-пуэрториканке, Jean-Мишель was fluent in French, Spanish and English. Jean-Мишель was not "a street kid" by birth, but they became by their own choice. That is the streets of new-Йорка awakened his artistic talent, formed a unique style of Basquiat, based on his intellectual baggage and rebellious energystreet graffiti. With all the external and primitive "primitive" Basquiat work is deeply conceptual, full of references to literary and artistic heritage of the past.

in 1976 on the houses, fences and cars new-йоркской subway began to appear inscriptions whose meaning was vague (such as "Plush safe he think..." —, "he thinks plush protects"). Then every self-respecting street artist signed his work. These labels appeared on behalf of a certain "SAMO" (short for, "same old shit" — literary if to say, "everything same as always"). This pseudonym took Basquiat and his friend Al Diaz. The friendship lasted until 1979 and ended with the words "SAMO is dead" ("SAMO is dead"). Basquiat began to fight their way to glory. Sold t-shirts, postcards with his drawings, they formed the band in the style of noise-рок, which appeared in the clubs, starred in an independent movie. On the advice of a friend took to serious painting.

the First success came in the early 1980-х. First group, and then a solo exhibition and an article by Rene Ricard's "the Radiant child" (The radiant child) in the famous magazine Artforum has made Basquiat is widely known in narrow but need a circle. In 1982 he met Jean-Мишеля with his idol Andy Warhol, largely determined the fate of the young artist. Who-то believes that Basquiat used the fame of Warhol, and Warhol was fueled by youth and creative energy Basquiat; others see in this strange tandem of true friendship. Whatever it was, the acquaintance and patronage of Warhol forced to talk about rising star, Basquiat all over America and then the world. He was considered the best in a group of young American artists neoekspressionistov, which in addition it included Julian Schnabel, David Salle and other Works by Jean-Мишеля began to rise in price. Basquiat worked up to 20 hours per day, often without removing their expensive Armani suits, and then in the same zakamennykh paint costumes revelers at receptions and parties. Even Warhol was jealous of his performance, saying that Basquiat paints faster than he was, Warhol, prints them.

But Jean-Мишелю haunted by the thought that all of this fuss over him not because he's a genius, but because he is primarily a black genius. He felt what-то like toys a rich white audience and dutifully played that role. His progressive drug craze since life on the street was part of the legend on which rested its popularity. There was a desire to give up everything to go to Hawaii or Maui, to open up a small tequila factory and live free, away from the fame and all that accompanies it. Jean-Мишель even tried once, to stop using heroin and taking time to Maui. But it didn't work. A huge blow was for Basquiat Warhol's death in 1987. He almost stopped to get out of the house, was paranoid, couldn't work, more injected. Last lethal dose was adopted on 12 August 1988. Basquiat was 27.

9. $105,5 million Andy Warhol. Silver car crash (Dual accident). 1963

It would be strange if inten authors of the most expensive in the world of work has not got the king of pop-арта Andy Warhol (1928-1987). Then would have to admit that the mass consciousness and the choice of collectors — is two not communicating vessel. Because Warhol is perhaps the most popular artist of the twentieth century. Although not Warhol "invented" pop-арт, he became the face of this trend. He not only ridiculed the cult of consumption, and introduced these ideas to the art (while preserving in their works an element of irony), has created a new direction, which attracted a circle of followers.

Six years Andy Warhol standing on the last position in our rating — there were too many masters "domestica" and more expensive — from Rubens to Klimt. For a long time the best result of Warhol's was $71.7 million, earned silkscreen "Green car crash" (1963) at Christie's in may 2007 (estimate: $25-35 million). But times change, and now increasingly rare on the market are masterpieces of old masters, Impressionists or modernists. Key trades moved into the segment of postwar and contemporary art. The art of the second half of the twentieth — early twenty-first century has risen inexorably in price, and the current personal record of Andy Warhol gives a direct confirmation of this.

At the auction of postwar and contemporary art Sotheby's 13 November 2013 (the day after a similar auction Christie's, where Francis bacon triptych sold for $142.4 million) silkscreen Andy Warhol's "Silver car crash (Dual accident)" has set a new world record for the artist — $105.5 million This work, as well as "Green car crash", refers to the great cycle of "Death and disaster" in which the artist reflects the results of a tragic road-транспортных accidents.

"Silver car crash (Dual accident)" is a group of four two-part Warhol in 1963 with images of automobile accidents. The remaining three works of the series are in museums, and only "Silver car crash" remains in private hands. The work has excellent provenance: it had been in the collection of Gunter Sachs (Gunter Sachs), Charles Saatchi (Charles Saatchi) and Thomas Ammann (Thomas Ammann). At the auction Sotheby's put the work of a private European collector who owned it for over 20 years.

the Artist transferred to canvas newspaper images of road accidents, repeatedly printing by screen printing silver reflective paint. The work reaches size of 2.4 × 4 m; on one half of — multiple image crashed into a tree machine; the second part is a monochromatic silver surface.

All terms of auction success is obvious: the rarity of the work, its importance in the heritage of the author, good provenance. It's hard to say what today Warhol is more interesting to collectors — brand, the notorious "irony" or some philosophical overtones, but that in 1962 you could buy for $ 100 (that's how much then cost "Banks soup Campbell"), and in 1978 — for a few tens of thousand, now worth tens of millions.

10. $95,4 million Roy Lichtenstein. Nurse. 1964

the Work of Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997) great-то confused: glory he brought paintings onthe basis of enlarged pictures from comic books. Like all artists of pop-арта, Liechtenstein erected objects of mass culture to the status of works of high art. Instead of the subtle color transitions — blocks of pure color, as if just released from the printing machine; instead of a complex psychological portraits — clichéd beauty from the pages of comic books with a standard set of emotions. Lichtenstein reproduced manually even raster grid, and deliberately increased or decreased the size of the points, bringing the content of the work to the grotesque. Taken out of context by image comic, as a rule, are accompanied by the emotional text: beauty of Liechtenstein drowning, crying, jealous, but the beauty and equanimity utterly idealized heroines frees us from the need genuinely to feel for them, everything is perceived as a beautiful picture — no more.

Paintings based on comic strips, by the way, is not the only direction in the work of Roy Lichtenstein. At the meeting in 2013, the artist's retrospective at the Tate Modern was showing Nude, sculpture, landscapes in the Chinese style of abstraction, as well as his own reading of works by Matisse, Picasso, Piet Mondrian and others: Lichtenstein reproduced masterpieces like "Rouen Cathedral" by Monet or "still life with goldfish" by Matisse all in the same "cartoon" manner with a raster grid.

Prices for works by Roy Lichtenstein crossed the seven-figure threshold in the late 1980-х, however, only since the beginning of 2000-х (after his death) began the rapid growth of the market for his works that led to the current auction record — $95 365 million so the threshold at $5 million and the work of Roy Lichtenstein was first crossed in 2002; 10-миллионая bar was taken in 2005 and in 2012-м for the painting "Sleeping girl" has already paid $44.9 million In the year of the work of Roy Lichtenstein, came to one price level with the paintings of Claude Monet, pop-арт was worth as much as the masterpieces of impressionism. Things like the Liechtenstein collectors from all over the world for the same "Sleeping girl" traded clients from China, USA, Latin America and Europe.

By the end of 2013-го, according to Artprice, the annual turnover of the works of Lichtenstein, amounted to more than $140 million (excluding Commission BP), which allowed him to take high 8-е place in the world ranking by auction turnover. In that year his painting "woman in a hat with flowers" (1963) at Christie's on may 15 was sold for $56.1 million including Commission. Is processing one of the cubist portraits of Dora Maar by Picasso in author pop-арт manner of Liechtenstein. The record coincided with a Grand retrospective of the artist in the Tate.

Two and a half years later, at auction Christie's "the Muse of the artist" 9 Nov 2015 painting "Nurse" (1964) sold for $95 365 million including Commission (estimate on request). The work belongs to the iconic paintings of the early 1960 Liechtenstein-х. Image of sexy beauty nurse @one of the key mdas in the post-war culture of the United States, along with brave American sailors. The picture Liechtenstein charming blonde with red lips — is as much an icon of popular culture, as "Marilyn" or "Liz" on the silkscreen of Warhol. Liechtenstein in this case lowered the accompanying text of the comic-первоисточника, thereby giving us a field forinterpretations of the emotional state of the heroine. It looks obviously scared — but what is she afraid of?

"Nurse" was shown for the first large solo exhibitions of Lichtenstein in the Guggenheim Museum in new-Йорке and the New national gallery in Berlin (both exhibitions were held in 1969). The work was kept in the collection of one of the first collectors of pop-арта, eccentric Leon Kraushar, which, according to critic Richard Polsky, once said: "Pop-арт is the art of today. All other — is old, ancient. Renoir? I can't stand him. Pictures for bedroom. All the same. The same I can say about all these abstract expressionists. Decor. No satire, no today, no fun".

11. $87,9 million Gustav Klimt. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Бауэр II. 1912

Strictly speaking, the "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Бауэр II" (1912) — is not the most expensive of famous works of Gustav Klimt. Shortly before the record deal was another auction — private closed, and therefore its results cannot be used for rating. But the-то the result is known, or rather, not refuted: another image of the same ladies — "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Бауэр I" 1907 — was brokered by Christie's acquired in summer 2006 perfume magnate Ronald Lauder for $135 million At that time this amount was the largest from when-либо paid for one work of art (and then it interrupted a private transaction with the work of Jackson Pollock, purchased for $160 million). So technically the most expensive auction lot of the brush remained Klimt "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Бауэр II" in 1912, which was sold at auction by Christie's 8 November 2006 for $87.9 million to a collector who wished to remain anonymous. On the same day was sold three more paintings by Klimt for a total of $103.4 million

Klimt very rarely appear at auction — and suddenly exhibited four canvas, and even Museum level. Where? In fact, from the Museum they have. At the auction came at the end of a long restorative dispute. Both the portrait and other paintings by Klimt was in Austria, the son of a wealthy Jewish sugar magnate, Ferdinand Bloch-Бауэра and his wife Adele. 43-летняя Adele died of meningitis in 1925, bequeathed at the death of her husband to transfer the paintings to the Austrian government. In 1938 Austria was annexed by Germany; himself Ferdinand Bloch-Бауэр managed to escape to Switzerland, and his paintings, including several works by Klimt, confiscated, after which part of them was sent to the Austrian Gallery Belvedere, and part sold. Even in Switzerland, Ferdinand Bloch-Бауэр rewrote the will in favor of the children of his brother. Till our days survived only Maria (husband Altman), which has already turned 90 years old. She moved from Austria to the USA in 1942. The dispute over the property has been confiscated since 2000. The Austrian government appealed to a bequest, the heirs — to another. In the end, an Austrian arbitration court supported the position of the Supreme court of the United States and decided to return five Klimt works heirs, led by Maria Altmann.

this Decision was givenhard and shocked the Austrians. In 2006, there were even reports that the government encouraged citizens to purchase the canvas to keep the national treasure in the country. Then the value of five canvases (including the portrait, purchased later Lauder), experts rated not less than $245 million, there were plans to issue a bond to raise the necessary funds. When the idea failed, Belvedere (including the pressure of anonymous threats to destroy paintings that they do not got successors), away from sin, was forced to remove the canvas from the exhibition.

Gustav Klimt (Gustav Klimt, 1862-1918) — is a recognized innovator, the founder of the Vienna secession (the Institute, who refused academic in the works), the artist, not just shocked the audiences is by no means a Puritan. The name of Klimt stably associated mysterious rumors that in the garden of the artist, inspiring him, went naked women, including the ladies of aristocratic circles. Klimt was a very in demand during his lifetime. Embodying the ideas of national symbolism, he achieved recognition as the official authorities and in 1883, Emperor Franz Joseph I even awarded him the main Imperial award available Austrian artist, — Golden order of merit. The favor of the most powerful and wealthy private customers are also not spared from it. Decorative, sophistication and eroticism of Klimt's works made them welcome the luxurious interior decoration of houses in the early twentieth century. And I must say that over time in this pursuit, little has changed.

the sale to the heirs of Klimt works from the collection of Ferdinand Bloch-Бауэра — is a unique case when on the market there are stuff of the world, "Museum" scale in the literal sense of the word. Something similar happens probably once in several decades, so the stakes are so high.

12. $86,9 million mark Rothko. Orange, red, yellow. 1961

One of the most enigmatic artists of our time. His life path like a walking contradiction — in creativity, actions, gestures... Considered one of the ideologists and, of course, a key figure in American abstract expressionism, Rothko could not stand when his work was called abstract. In the past, who knew what life is hand to mouth, he defiantly returned to customers absolutely fantastic in terms of current money advance, leaving himself almost completely finished the job. Waiting for your success and your ability to earn a living by painting for almost fifty years, he repeatedly denied people who wish to destroy his career. At least the socialist in the soul, who shared the ideas of Marx, hostile attitude to the rich and wealth, Rothko became in the end the author of the most expensive paintings in the world, which actually turned into the attribute of high status of their owners. (No joke, record "White center", sold for $65 million, came from the Rockefeller family.) Dreamed of the recognition of the mass audience, was ultimately the Creator of paintings-настоящему clear until now, only a circle of intellectuals and connoisseurs.Finally, an artist who sought conversation with the Lord through the music of his canvases, the artist, whose work became the Central design element of the Church of all religions, finished way of life absolutely desperate godless act...

Rothko, remembering the pale of settlement and the Cossacks may have wondered what they are proud of also as Russian artists. However, enough anti-Semitism in America 1930-х — is not accidental artist "cut" generic name rothkowitz. But we call it Russian is not without reason. To start — by birth. The Latvian Dvinsk, Daugavpils present at the time of the birth of Marcus Rotkovicha — is part of Russia and will remain so until the collapse of the Empire, until 1918. However, the revolution Rothko won't see. In 1913, the boy is taken somewhere in the United States, the family moved to Portland, Oregon. That is, childhood and adolescence were held in Russia, there was formed the life perception, vision. Except that here he was born, with Russia Rothko link, note, and philosophical themes and conflicts. It is known that he valued the works of Dostoevsky. And even vices, which Rothko indulged in the world are associated why-то with Russian. Depression in the West call why-то "Russian disease." That's not an argument, of course, but one more stroke to the wholeness of nature, Russian artist.

For pioneering discoveries in painting Rothko was a long 15 years. The past through a figurative Hobbies, including surrealism and figurative expressionism, in the mid-1940-х it extremely simplified structure of her paintings, limiting the expressive means of several colorful blocks that make up the composition. The intellectual basis of his work — is almost always a matter of interpretation. Rothko usually did not give direct answers, counting on the complicity of the viewer in understanding the work. The only thing he definitely counted on, — on the emotional work of the viewer. His paintings are not for recreation, not for relaxation and not for "visual massage." They are designed for empathy. Some see them as Windows to look into the soul of the viewer, the other — door to another world. There is a view (perhaps closest to the truth), that his color field — is a metaphorical image of God.

the Decorative power of "color fields" is due to a number of special techniques used by Rothko. His paintings do not suffer massive RAM — high thin dies-кромки in the color of the canvas. The edges of the paintings the artist deliberately tinted in a gradient to a picturesque field of lost borders. Fuzzy boundaries internal squares — is also a reception method without the use of contrast to create the effect of jitter, the apparent overlap of blocks of color, pulsation spots, like flickering light of electric lamps. This mild dissolution in color was particularly good oil, before moving Rothko on opaque acrylic in the late sixties. And found the effect of electric surge increases, if you look at the pictures at close range. According to the artist the three-meter canvases the viewer is optimally viewed from a distance of half a meter.

Today the paintings of Rothko — pride of any known Museum of modern art. So, in English the Tate gallery has a room of Rothko in which they live nine paintings from those that were written under contract with a restaurant Four Seasons. It wasquite revealing for the character of Rothko history. In 1959 the artist on the recommendation addressed to the owners of the fashionable restaurant "seasons", which opened in an unusual new-йоркском skyscraper Seagram Building (by company name — manufacturer of alcohol). The amount of the contract in terms of today's money amounted to nearly $3 million —, a very substantial fee even held a recognized artist, which at the time was already Rothko. However, when the work was almost finished, Rothko returned unexpectedly advance and refused to hand it to the customer. Among the main reasons for the sudden act of biographers considered the reluctance to please the ruling class and rich to entertain at dinner. There is also a view that Rothko was upset that his paintings will not see the rank and file employees working in the building. However, the latest version looks too romantic.

After nearly 10 years of canvases prepared for the Four Seasons, Rothko donated to the Tate Gallery in London. In a bitter twist of fate, on February 25, 1970, in the day when the boxes with pictures reached the English port, the artist was found in his Studio dead — with severed veins and (perhaps for guarantees) a huge dose of sleeping pills in the stomach.

Today, the work Rothko is experiencing another wave of sincere interest. Workshops, open exhibitions, published monographs. On the banks of the Daugava river, the home of the artist, the monument.

every year at the auctions alone Rothko paintings, not counting the graphics, exhibited approximately 10-15 pieces. They pay millions and tens of millions of dollars. And these prices are not an accident but rather a tribute to his innovation, the desire to discover new semantic layers and to join a creative phenomenon of one of the most mysterious Russian artists.

may 8, 2012 at the auction of postwar and contemporary art Christie's painting "Orange, red, yellow" in 1961 went for $86,88 million (including Commission). The work comes from the collection of the Pennsylvania philanthropist David Pincus. Work size of 2.4 × 2.1 meters, David and his wife Gerry bought at Marlborough Gallery, and then permanently gave up its lease to the Philadelphia art Museum. Painting "Orange, red, yellow" was not only the most expensive work of the artist of Russian origin, but also the most expensive piece of postwar and contemporary art sold at public auction.

13. $85,81 million Kazimir Malevich. Suprematist composition. 1916

Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (1878-1935), of course, enters into the five of the most brilliant revolutionaries of twentieth-century art in the world. Philosopher, innovator, developer of new theoretical approaches, the ideologist of Suprematism, which became the hallmark of Russia in the international art arena. The work of Malevich — pride of the best museums in the world and a dream of many collectors.

the Crown research Malevich can be called the work "Black square" in 1915 (in the Tretyakov gallery holds one of four surviving versions). Thing high metaphorical value: the late paintings, the end of painting, the starting point,the requirement to develop the project of the future. Supremus, on the idea of the Creator, is the highest stage of vanguard, is able to afford geometric conciseness of expression. In the twenties, Malevich extended his philosophical system in the applied field: Suprematism was the basis of excellence in design and architecture. Malevich was implemented and how the teacher who discovered the talent in his numerous disciples, who kept devotion to his ideas even in the face of persecution. In art history includes periods of work in the UNOVIS ("Association of affirmative new art", Vitebsk — Petrograd (Leningrad), 1919-1922), in Ginhuke (State Institute of artistic culture, 1923).

the Late 1920-х was marked by a period of repression against the developers ideas of artistic avant-garde. In fact, the "school of Malevich" was broken up, the Malevich was arrested. In 1927, the artist managed during a foreign trip to cover a part of the work in Berlin and are expected to save their ideas from the ban and oblivion. Malevich died in 1935. But his best work for decades was buried in the vaults of Soviet museums. You can see them only making a few acquaintances in the Museum environment. Nevertheless, the specialists and collectors-подвижников (for example, George Kostaki) information about the ideas of Malevich, we can say, the underground paths distributed in circles of the Soviet intelligentsia and influenced the artistic language of representatives of unofficial art, artists-шестидесятников.

the Most expensive work of Kazimir Malevich is one of those that have gone through auction, for the past almost 10 years — "Suprematist composition" in 1916. The first appearance of this work at a public auction took place on 3 November 2008. Just six months before, in April 2008-го, "Suprematist composition" has returned itself to the restitution of the heirs of Malevich. Moreover, returned from-нибудь, and from the collection of the Amsterdam Stedelijk-музеума. The Museum then had to give five of Malevich's paintings from his collection, despite the fact that in 1958 the Stedelijk legally bought it from the architect Hugo Haring. Only here Hugo Hering had no right to sell them: Malevich left the works in temporary storage, but never managed to pick up. In General, fresh to market a masterpiece with crystal clear provenance November 3, 2008 brought to auction a record $60 million Among the possible buyers of the Malevich was the name of that Roman Abramovich, the art-дилер Syrian origin, David Nahmad. Whoever the mystery owner, after almost ten years, waiting for the situation in these cases a pause, he bent his Malevich to resell. We in AI have assumed that such a significant work for me more than $100 million, and our Kazimir Malevich will enter into a "club" of artists whose works sold for a nine-digit amount. But interest in Malevich among collectors in the top-сегменте we somewhat overestimated. The final hammer price at auction may 15, 2018 $85,81 million With this result, Malevich remained in second place in the ranking of the artists of the Russian art for the first time found himself in the world of artists.

14. $84,69 million Claude Monet. Water lilies in bloom. OK. 1914-1917

If someone asks you to name the most famous artists-импрессионистов, the name of Claude Monet (1840-1926) is certainly sound one of the first. Picture is of Claude Monet gave the name to the entire direction of art. In April, 1874, saw the exhibition of Monet "Impression. Rising sun" (FR. "Impression, soleil levant"), the critic Louis Leroy from the newspaper Le Charivari wrote: "Wallpaper, and those would have looked more finished than this "Experience!"". His opinion was shared by most critics of the time — "Impression" ("Impression") Monet was negative a name for this obscure style in which the paintings looked more like a sloppy, unfinished sketches than completed works.

But Monet and his fellow Impressionists was not paying attention to the criticism and continued to write his picture@-"impressions", in which fleeting state of nature, air, clouds in the sky and the sunlight was more important than vypisnoy all the details. The Monet family (a married artist in his model Camille, Donse that parents Claude was not happy) for many years lived in poverty: often not enough money is not something that is on the paint, but even for bread. At the risk of being homeless from-за debts on rent, Monet had to regularly ask for loans from friends — writer Emile Zola, Edouard Manet, etc. was Very helpful familiarity with the art dealer Paul Durand-Рюэлем, thanks to which the memories of Monet, he and many of his friends at the time died of hunger.

recognition of Claude Monet achieved only after forty, and he lived a long, long 86 years, life, having to survive both her husband (Camille died of tuberculosis, and after 13 years, the artist married Alice aside) and the eldest son of Jean. In his later years, Monet began to rapidly lose eyesight from-за cataract, but still continued to paint landscapes around his home in Giverny — garden, now famous pond with bridge and Lily pads. In ' 72 his left eye saw only 10 % of normal, and the right was able to discern only light. In 83 he decided to have surgery, which will result in his right eye began to see everything in blue-фиолетовом color. Can't see the world as Monet continued to work more in memory. And in the last years of his life almost blind Monet created what would later be called the Sistine chapel of impressionism — eight huge panels of water Lilies, now kept in the oval hall of the Musee d'orsay.

Much water has flowed since those first exhibitions of the Impressionists, which the audience came more to gloat than to admire. Today, impressionism has become one of the most popular among the General public styles. The same Monet retrospective in Paris Grand Palais in 2011 called for 920 thousand. Art lovers were ready for three hours to stand in a queue in the cold to see two hundred paintings of Monet. And in the last three days of the exhibition, the Museum was kept open around the clock and through the halls were 40 thousand visitors. Of the more recent examples — exhibition of works from the collection of Sergei Shchukin in the Fondation Louis Vuitton, which became the most visited exhibition in 2017. The exhibition (which had to be increased for two weeks in connection with its phenomenal popularity) called for a total ofover 1.2 million people.

If we talk about money, which is measured by the love for impressionism from those who can afford it, the answer is simple: big. For Claude Monet for eight years, a record bar was $80,55 million paid at the height of art-рынка, in June 2008, late 1919 work "a Pond with water lilies". In 2016, this record killed the sale of paintings of well-known series with haystacks at Giverny, captured at different times of day and different seasons. The painting "the Haystack" (1890-1891) at auction on 16 November 2016, was sold for $81,45 million with the Buyer's Premium.

In may 2018, it is time for another record at Christie's auction painting "Lilies in bloom", written around 1914-1917 in Giverny, sold for $84,687 million Work was exhibited from the collection of the late David Rockefeller — that have been through six or seven heart transplants and died at the age of 101 years. The money from the sale of the collection, bequest of the Rockefeller Foundation, has promised to spend on charity. According to eyewitnesses, the final bid was received by telephone an employee of Christie's, working with clients from Asia. So hanging, seemingly, this "water Lilies" by Monet where-нибудь in a mansion or a private Museum of the Chinese billionaire.

15. $84,2 million Barnett Newman. Black fire I. 1961

the Record of the work of Barnett Newman's "Black fire I" was a complete surprise auction at Christie's may 13, 2014. That is not the mere fact of the record, as to what amount is able to reach the claimants in the battle of the rates. The previous most expensive work of this abstract artist, "Onement VI" was worth $43.8 million (Sotheby's, 14.05.2013; estimate $30-40 million), i.e. a new record was almost twice as high. The estimate of "Black fire", by the way, were not disclosed, so we don't find out exactly how much it was exceeded. One thing is clear: abstraction of Newman on the art-рынке came to one price level with works by his closest ally in the group of artists, called "painting color fields", — Mark Rothko.

Newman belongs to that first generation of American abstract expressionists, which was at the source of a huge number of new trends. Artists such as Barnett Newman, mark Rothko, clyfford still or Jackson Pollock, — is a rooted branching tree of postwar American art, for Americans they mean the same thing for us, Malevich and Kandinsky. Therefore, probably, and buy them work for the money. Not surprising if in a couple of years in this ranking displays the relevant results for Pollock or stilla — enough to auction off their masterpiece at the appropriate level.

Barnett (Barney) Newman was born in 1905 in new-Йорке in a family of Polish Jews who had emigrated from the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century (they hold a little, and would be today we have another artist orbit of Russian art). Barney studied painting for years with eighteen (at the Art students League of new-Йорка Duncan Smith, Harry, Vicki and John Sloan), but all his work during the first forty years of his life he destroyed, including a working 1930-х when Newman shared a workshop with Adolf Gottlieb. In 1930-х same Newman became friends with Marcus Rotkovicha(later became mark Rothko), and together they went on painting and poetry to the modernist Milton Avery. Early Barnett was more public and journalistic activities — he put forward his candidacy for mayor of new-Йорка, along with friend Alexander Borodulin wrote a Manifesto "On the need for political initiatives of the people in the arts" and even issued the first and only issue of "Response" on the rights of public servants like teachers, janitors or firefighters.

At the same time, Newman has repeatedly tried to pass the exam to get a permanent solution to teach painting, but all attempts ended in failure. All this resulted in a protest exhibition "Can We Draw? The Board of Examiners Says — No!" ("Can we draw? The exam Board says — no!"), where have been collected the Committee rejected the work. The exhibition has caused a sensation in the press, Newman was allowed to retake the exam, but again to no avail. In General, relations with representatives of official art evolved with varying degrees of success. In 1943 Newman, along with Rothko and Gottlieb wrote a response to criticism of the New York Times of an exhibition of American modernists. "Aesthetic beliefs" of this trio was the following: "there are No good paintings about nothing. We believe that the theme plays a key role and that only the essence has the power, it's tragic and eternal."

several years later, around 1947-1948, Newman, as he believed, achieved artistic maturity. The artist developed his own recognizable style — scale flat fields of pure color separated by thin vertical lines (he called them "zips" — "lightning"). These "lightning" determining the spatial structure of the fabric, they simultaneously divide and unite the compositions. His cold and strict, but-своему emotional work seem deceptively simple. As soon as any call pattern Newman's criticism of — and "philosophical statements without artistic skill," and "pure painting without a theme". The Barnett Newman insisted on the deep content of their work. He called them by the names of biblical characters or, for example, a false concept of "Onement" (according to the critics, the series titled "Onement" is derived from the word "Atonement" — "atonement") and wanted them to look solely at close range.

the Most expensive work by Newman — "Black fire I" was written in 1961, then when he created his famous cycle "the way of the cross", which first appeared strict black-белая palette. But unlike the earlier works of the "way of the Cross" in the "Black fire" the pitch black seemed to encroach on the territory of the white field that it dominates. Just at this time suddenly died, the younger brother of George Newman. The painting helped the artist to deal with the grief of loss, the emotions he expressed through the language of abstraction.

16. $82,5 million Vincent van Gogh. Portrait of Dr. Gachet. 1890

for a Very long time — from 1990 to 2004 — palm in the ranking of the authors the most expensive works of art auction sales results belonged to the post impressionist Vincent van Gogh(1853-1890). "Portrait of Dr. Gachet" (Portrait du Docteur Gachet), written by the artist shortly before his death, was bought by Japanese millionaire, Rei Saito at Sotheby's in may 1990 for $82.5 million

History of the picture itself is akin to a detective. In 1896, the portrait was sold by the wife of the artist's brother, Theo van Gogh, the famous dealer in pictures, and then a long time passed from hand to hand. The following significant message about it dates back to the late 1930-х years old when the painting came to the Museum of Frankfurt, but in 1938, after a meeting in Munich of the exhibition "Degenerate art", the painting "acquired" by the Nazis, but soon resold it to the collection Kramskogo. Then the picture was to the USA from Holland emigrated to escape the Nazis, her new owners. After their death the heirs decided to sell the portrait and put it up for auction in new-Йорке in 1990. The picture for the above amount of acquired Japanese millionaire, tycoon, Rei Saito, who is rumored to be buried themselves with a masterpiece. After the death of Saito in 1996, the exact whereabouts of "portrait of doctor Gachet" for a long time was unknown, which created a lot of guesswork.

the fact that Saito in a fit of rage caused by the fact that in Japan he has to pay very high taxes (about $24 million per year), said that the paintings will go to the grave. The heirs of a millionaire refused to talk about the fate of a masterpiece, thus depressing assumptions. However, some light on the fate of the painting shed one of the leaders of the Tokyo auction house, Kiyonori Yamamoto, reported that the painting was sold in the U.S. at a "reasonable price" — from $87 to $130 million. the new owner is not disclosed. Later it was reported that all this time the picture held in the safe of a Japanese Bank — lender Saito, but the Bank deliberately kept silent to have his name not associated with the failure of the borrower. Whatever it was, but still in all major publications about van Gogh, including catalogs, "Portrait of Dr. Gachet" is accompanied by the note "Whereabouts unknown".

on the one hand, the history of the painting is shrouded in lots of mysteries, including the foolish to assume that people in their right mind as a last will might show desire to carry with him to the grave of van Gogh's painting, it is almost impossible. At the same time it is in the spirit of the artist. Or, more accurately, our understanding of it. After all, part of the legend about van Gogh — his madness that allowed him to look at such depths that are inaccessible to mere mortals. In fact, so such an interest and "Portrait of doctor Gachet" — attending physician of the clinic for the mentally ill. However, against the doctor himself, van Gogh said a mysterious phrase: "First of all, it is much less healthy than I, or at least as sick."

on the other hand, hiding the real location of a masterpiece can be quite prosaic explanation. If the portrait actually exists, then it is possible that the current owner, whoever he was, feared a repetition of the history of restorative Klimt paintings. In 1937's "Portrait of Dr. Gachet" was confiscated improvised Goering at the Frankfurt Institute Stades. So, he announced today, on the background of precedents with Klimt paintings and Malevich, the legitimate owner is unlikely to retreat from theirright.

For 101 years before the unprecedented sale of "Portrait of doctor Gachet" Vincent prophetically wrote to his brother, Theo: "the Practice in the trade of works of art, when prices rise after the author's death, survived so far... the highest prices, which they say and which have been paid for the work already deceased artists, when their lives would not have risen — is that-то kind of trade tulips when a living artist has more disadvantages than advantages".

17. $80,75 million Henri Matisse. Reclining odalisque with magnolias. 1923

Henri Matisse (1869-1954), founder of this artistic movement as "Fauvism" (from the French. fauve — wild), and the arts prompted, oddly enough, appendicitis. At the age of 19 a young clerk to an attorney, a promising graduate of the Paris School of legal Sciences Henri Emile Benoit Matisse had an attack of appendicitis. After the surgery he had two months to spend in a hospital bed, and his mother, wanting to entertain poprassegna son, bought him art supplies. The redraw color postcards so fascinated by Henry that law, despite the protests of his father — of a prosperous grain merchant, he left and went to study to be an artist.

After 15 years of creative searches, going through a fascination with impressionism and pointillism, Matisse, along with friends andré Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck and others have chosen for themselves the main expressive means "pure color". Form in their paintings were simplified and flattened, light and shade modeling gave way to contrasting clash of blocks in local colors. The model could depict with a green nose if it turned out expressive. "I do not paint women; I paint a picture", — proclaimed Matisse. Critic Louis Vasel seeing in 1905 at the salon d'automne picture of this group of artists, called them "savages" (FR. les fauves). The name "fauves" stuck in the flow, although the band members themselves never acknowledged.

Group the fauves a few years broke up, and Matisse went on his creative path, which was a fleeting reference to cubism (under the influence of his friend Picasso), and hobby ornaments in the whole East (after traveling to Algeria and Morocco), and experience in lithography and sculpture, and the experience of monumental painting (what are the panel "the Dance" and "Music" written for the mansion of Sergei Shchukin in 1909), etc. etc multi-Faceted talent of Matisse was appreciated during his lifetime, his exhibitions were held worldwide, and the work sold well. Today, Henri Matisse and is one of the most expensive artists. Except that almost all his best works are already in museums.

And here may 8, 2018 on the evening auction Christie's was exhibited "Reclining odalisque with magnolias" ("Odalisque couchée aux magnolias"), 1923. This work refers to a famous series of paintings with sensual odalisque, created by Matisse influenced the relaxing atmosphere of the South of France, where the artist moved in 1916. "Reclining odalisque with magnolias" in the year of its writing bought at the salon d'automne, Matisse dealers Josse and Gaston Bernheim-Жен. In 1956, the work was acquired by the Chicago steeltycoon and collector B. Lay Block and only a few years of Matisse's the Block has bought David Rockefeller. Since then, the painting, like a good wine, "kept" in the same collection, finding the aura of half-forgotten and welcome to art-рынка masterpiece.

So it is expected "Reclining odalisque with magnolias" set a new record price for the artist. Christie's promoted it as one of the best works of Matisse from when-либо put up for auction. Estimate cloth, according to rumors, was about $70 million the Main fight for the lot was developed between the head of the Department of postwar and contemporary art Christie's, Loic Guzie and head of Christie's in Asia, Blue Lee. The final bid was from the Blue Whether (and, hence, the buyer most likely was the Asian collector) — $71.5 million, and given the Commission a record $80.75 million, the Previous record was exceeded by more than $30 million: it belonged to a sculptural relief of "Nude from behind IV" in 1930, sold in 2010 for $48.8 million including Commission.

18. $78,1 million Auguste Renoir. Moulin de La Galette (Le Moulin de la Galette). 1876

In recent years, the range of art lovers who commit open transactions at fantastic prices, more-менее defined, and each approximation and the more flight strap auction $100 million in offers analysts and journalists to choose the not too many could create another sensation.

In 1990-м there was no choice, and there was only one person — the same millionaire, Rei Saito. Through the day (!) after he acquired the "Portrait of Dr. Gachet" by van Gogh for $82.5 million, 17 may 1990, already at Sotheby's, an eccentric Japanese bought the painting of Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) "Moulin de La Galette" for $78.1 million as significant amounts paid by one person for the paintings, then became a sensation in the world of Antiques (who today will surprise you!) and strengthened the position of Impressionists and post-Impressionists as "blue chip" art-рынка.

In the auction catalog and press-релизах prior to bidding, Sotheby's determined the painting "Moulin de La Galette" (Moulin de la Galette, 1876) as "the most high-quality work of Renoir, which first appeared on the market." Potential buyers responded, and the canvas went under the hammer for a huge amount.

it is also Noteworthy that, although this picture belongs to the category of a textbook in the works of Renoir, after his death she was shown to the public only once, at the exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum in 1937. Meanwhile, the picture painted in the period when after the scandalous exhibition of the Impressionists in 1874 in the Studio of Nadar to the Renoir had success and recognition, but his style finally took shape. Sold at auction in 1990 was the work of the author's repetition of the famous "Moulin de La Galette" of the same year, preserved in the Museum d'orsay in Paris. Joyful and triumphant mood canvases rife with sunshine, love and carefree joy, became the hallmark of the artist.

in addition to the obvious high quality of painting, as well as loud the name of the author, a special value (not even money — cultural) this painting Renoir gives what itcan be considered a kind of Manifesto of impressionism — along with famous paintings "Impression. Sunrise" Claude Monet, "luncheon on the grass" by Edouard Manet. Here is everything that I appreciate the Impressionists: and the story (the theme for the Renoir painting found near the house, in Montmartre, Cortot street, in the restaurant "Moulin de La Galette"), and plein air (in order to write a scene from nature, and not in the Studio, the artist had to make a large canvas in the garden, where the light playing through the leaves of acacia trees, USEPA the ground and the clothes dancing blue and pink highlights). Besides the artist not only accurately and vividly conveyed the atmosphere of Montmartre dance hall 1870-х years, where on weekends going to dance clerks from stores, the seamstresses, the young artists, writers and Actresses, but also depicted in the painting of his friends, prominent members of the then Parisian Bohemia — Spanish painter don Pedro Vidal de Solares, painters Henri Gervais and Frederick Corde, and also the journalist Field Lot. In General, if a collector has aimed to provide a collection of all the major trends in painting, the "Moulin de La Galette" Renoir on the right would be a perfect reflection of the essence of impressionism.

the Purchase of this painting for 78.1 million dollars at that time was a very unsuccessful enterprise. Soon the crisis broke out, and the works of the Impressionists fell in price by nearly twenty percent. Boom back only a few years. No one knows what became of the painting after the death of a Japanese collector, the data open the auction no, but according to unconfirmed rumours, the canvas from the collection of the Saito were sold in 1998, over 50 million buyer, whose name was not disclosed. However, these auctions cannot be directly compared with the amounts discreet private transactions.

19. $76,7 million Peter Paul Rubens. The massacre of the innocents. OK. 1609-1611

Among the leaders of auction sales represented entirely by the Impressionists, post-Impressionists and modernists, unexpectedly and one of the main "old masters" — famous Flemish Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). In July 2002 at Sotheby's auction his painting "massacre of the innocents" was sold for 76.7 million dollars.

it is Highly unusual that the high prices reached precisely the canvas on a difficult gospel story — seemingly more popular was to use, for example, "Orgy" with buxom beauties. But — no. One of the most brutal scenes of the New Testament — executed by soldiers of the monstrous order of Herod the king.

this is why, perhaps, the organizers of the auction carefully evaluated in 6 million pounds. However, the auction was fierce competition between the four buyers. In the end, the canvas bought a London manuscripts dealer, who spoke in favor of an anonymous buyer. As it turned out later, this buyer was a canadian collector David Thomson, son of newspaper magnate Lord Thomson, the former owner of the London Times.

Perhaps the reason for such a strong excitement was a Museum level paintings — not for him at auctionfought the representatives of a number of museums, including the Getty Museum in Los-Анджелесе. The role played by the unexpected discovery made by the auction house expert on Flemish painting of George Gordon. The fact that until recently the picture was attributelabels one of the disciples of Rubens, but George Gordon, after examining the similarities between "Childermas" and the famous painting by Rubens "Samson and Dalila" from the collections of the national gallery in London, suggested that the authorship belongs not to the student, and the teacher. Although leading experts and researchers to the paintings of Rubens confirmed the withdrawal of British experts, representatives of the auction house, obviously, he wasn't sure that it got to the real masterpiece of the master, who could decorate, without exaggeration, any Museum collection.

20. $71 million Constantin Brancusi. Dainty girl (Portrait of Nancy Cunard). The idea 1928. Casting 1932

the Poor peasant's son, who came on foot from Romania to Paris, where he was destined to become a pioneer of modern avant-garde sculpture, — so in a nutshell, you can present one of the greatest sculptors of the twentieth century, Constantin Brancusi (in Paris, he began to call in the French manner Brancusi). Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), who came to Paris in 1904 and lived in this city most of his life, never ashamed of his low origin, and even, on the contrary, was proud of him and strongly supported the legend of himself: there were in the traditional dress of the Romanian peasant, even at the official receptions, and his workshop on the outskirts of Paris turned into a kind of Romanian houses with hand-carved furniture and a fireplace, in which the sculptor's an iron pin roasted meat.

the talent of the sculptor woke up in Constantine, when he worked as a messenger in the Romanian town of Craiova. In his free time, Brancusi began to carve figures from wood and one day, as legend has it, made from scrap materials the violin so vpechatlilo local industrialist, that he gave his training in art school Craiova. Then a talented peasant, studied at the School of fine arts in Bucharest, and in Paris not very long worked in Rodin's Studio where gone with the words "Nothing will grow in the shade of large trees." But even this short experience with Rodin certainly had influence on the formation of Brancusi-скульптора — is one of the first significant works was called, by analogy with rodenovskim masterpiece, "the Kiss" (1907-1908). Only it was a very different Kiss: Brancusi's gone from realism in the direction of simplified, geometrizovannym forms; figure lovers carved from a single piece of stone, almost square, with schematic dig of hair, eyes, and lips.

"Kiss," Brancusi many counts the history of modern abstract sculpture. Although the author never thought his work abstract. Perfecting your favorite shape of stone, marble, bronze, wood (Brancusi repeatedly returning to his series "the Kiss", "head of the muses","Bird in space", "Endless column", etc.), the sculptor sought to literally display the appearance of an object or a person, an animal, but to convey his idea, inner essence. Through the polished forms of Brancusi wanted to Express some fundamental, hidden nature of things. The work of the Romanian sculptor represent a wonderful fusion of ancient, ancient art, filled with myths and legends with contemporary avant-garde ideas.

the Most expensive to date, the sculpture of Constantin Brancusi — bronze "Dainty girl (Portrait of Nancy Cunard)" (1928 plan; casting 1932). At the evening auction of impressionist and modern may 15, 2018 this work was purchased for $71 million including Commission. Nancy Cunard — writer, political activist and one of the favorite muses of artists, poets and writers of 1920-х, including Tristan Tzara, Ernest Hemingway, man ray, Louis Aragon, James Joyce, and others. Nancy Cunard were familiar with Constantin Brancusi, been to his Studio but never specifically didn't pose for him. That Brancusi created a sculpture that bears her name, she found out many years later. The first version of the work entitled "La jeune fille sophistiquée ( Portrait de Nancy Cunard)" was performed Brancusi wood in 1925-1927 In 1928, he wanted to do a portrait of Nancy Cunard in bronze. In 1932 he Brancusi cast her in plaster form in a single instance, and carefully polished. In generalized, semi-abstract forms the sculptor portrayed on a thin neck head Nancy with the hair gathered at the nape into a beam of complex shape. Perhaps the form of hair refers to the style of Cunard twist strands from a person. In one Brancusi sculpture, combining straight lines and feminine curves, smooth and at the same time, the broken, twisted form, would convey a contradictory beauty of one of the main muses of the "roaring twenties". And this is a Romanian genius, of course, failed.

21. $70,5 million CY Twombly. Untitled (new-Йорк). 1968

the American painter CY Twombly (1928-2011) were included in our ranking authors of the most expensive works of art in the world with a record of the work "untitled (new-Йорк)" in 1968. At the evening auction of postwar and contemporary art Sotheby's November 11, 2015 this picture is related to the cycle of so-called "boards" Twombly, was sold for $70.53 million including Commission.

CY Twombly is recognized throughout the world, many times he participated in the Venice Biennale, has created a ceiling painting in one of the halls of the Louvre. However, he still remains one of the most difficult to understand of the representatives of American abstract expressionism. As he wrote to the curator kirk Varnedoe on the occasion of the opening of the Twombly retrospective at MOMA in 1994, "Twombly, which had a huge influence on many artists, has become a real bone of contention for critics. It is incredibly difficult to understand, not only for the General public: Twombly was alien even to the fathers-основателям highbrow post-war art." To say nothing of the layman, who for the most part are wondering: Yes, my child could do better. The above-mentioned article, Varnadowas called "Why your child can't: reflections on the work of CY Twombly".

Experts in Twombly write that the full depth of his creations can be understood only through personal acquaintance with them, and when reproduction it is completely lost. Everything is made up of a huge number of the tiniest details — scratches, scuffs, drops, written in pencil passages from Italian and classical poetry. In 1957 Twombly moved to the South of Italy — hence it is a fascination with the history and poetry of ancient and medieval Europe. In the works of Twombly also find references to primitive art, the works of Da Vinci, readymade Marcel Duchamp and the Italian futurists, comprehend mythology through the principles of abstraction.

Away from the bustling art-сцены new-Йорка born unique artist, who found relatively late recognition (compared to, for example, with his friends Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns). But Twombly is a little worried: all his life he avoided reporters and did not pay attention to the art-критиков, many of whom questioned the value of his works. In the meantime, Twombly experimented with brushwork — for example, tried to draw in the dark to make the figure less obvious and clear.

What's so special about the work "untitled (new-Йорк)" to be evaluated more than $70 million? When you first look at this kind of thing Twombly often comes to mind is the comparison with the painted with chalk school Board. Work in this series is called — "boards." However, I wrote this "blackboard" painting with paint and wax crayons on canvas. If you believe the critics, in their "boards" Twombly tried to pass on the painting's surface a sense of time and movement. These rapidly derived white lines can be seen as a natural phenomenon and not a creation of human hands. The artist has noted that the most important for him is "accommodation" of each line, each stroke. "This painting is important is not the image, not an illustration, and handed over in the sense of its creation, and realization", — said Twombly and added: "When I finish the next picture, then I usually spend a couple of days in bed to recover". Such was the involvement of the artist in process of creation. And in "boards" of CY Twombly put it, the American component of his nature. Although the first "Board" was written in Rome, then Twombly for a few years returned to new-Йорк — grey, almost monochrome "boards" were more suited to a city of skyscrapers than Sunny Italy. Well, maybe not new-йоркцу really hard to understand what's wrong with them — in these mysterious unnamed works of CY Twombly?

22. $70,06 million Fernand Leger. The contrast of forms. 1913

Christie's auction On 13 November 2017 paintings of Fernand Leger (1881-1955) "Contrast of forms", first exhibited at a public auction, reached a record for the artist's result of $70 062 500 including the fee of the auction house. The previous record for works by Leger — $39 000 241 — was held in 2012. The picture "Contrast of forms" wasoffered for auction by Anne-Марии and Stephen Celleno. The proceeds from the sale funds the Foundation promised to send to charity.

have Established auction record picture "Contrast of forms" (1913) refers to the body of the artist's works, written in the early 1910-х years in Paris. Leger had already experienced a youthful infatuation with impressionism, in 1909, wrote in the fashionable style of cubism, he was attracted to pure abstraction, and actively exhibited at the Autumn salon and the Salon of Independent. But soon began the First world war tore artist for two years from the creative atmosphere of Paris, threw him in the trenches in the Argonne and Verdun. After gas poisoning Leger was discharged from the army in 1917 and returned to work. After the war is an important theme in his work was the theme of the struggle for peace. But more often, the painting by Fernand Leger began to glorify the urban, technological reality. The instantly recognisable style of figurative works by Leger ironically called "cubism" — for the predominance in the composition of tubular forms.

Incidentally, the fact that the auction record for the French artist Fernand Leger was set at auction in new-Йорке, is not surprising. Leger, unlike many of its European counterparts, America loved and often visited it, and from 1940 to 1945 he lived permanently in the States. Frantic pace of life of great American cities, the fascination of Americans with technological innovations, their love of life had a huge influence on the Leger. Especially the artist loved new-Йорк and called this city a "work of architectural art". The Americans reciprocated. The artist even during his lifetime was popular among American tycoons, and they often commissioned him a monumental work. In particular, Leger decorated the new-йоркские apartment of Nelson A. Rockefeller, and created a huge wall painting "the Divers" on long-Айленде.

23. $66,3 million Willem de Kooning. Untitled XXV. 1977

Willem de Kooning — one of the main representatives of abstract expressionism, the greatest painter and sculptor of the postwar period. Born in 1904 in Rotterdam, at the age of 22 went to America. For many years Willem was engaged in the decoration of apartments, storefronts, joiner's works etc., but painting was only free from work time. However, during these years De Kooning met with many representatives of the turbulent artistic environment new-Йорка. Greatly influenced the future of the great abstractionist communication with Arshile Gorky. By the end of 1930-х — early 1940-х the style of Willem de Kooning (the particle "de" he had added to his name in 1937) is formed, on its abstractions enthusiastically talking experts. In 1950 De Kooning, Arshile Gorky and Jackson Pollock has represented the IOM at the Venice Biennale. But the public then his work is not understood and not accepted.

In 1953, Willem de Kooning presented a series of five giant paintings with images of women, written in the pasty, almost abstract manner. These five famous paintings of the female figure turns into a violent hurricane of colors, pent-up, except that picture frame. Fromsharp black lines, Golden and silvery spots formed head, neck, torso, dissected to pieces in a well-controlled chaos. The woman in the paintings of de Kooning becomes a symbol, "totem", which the artist "is" for nearly his whole career.

a major commercial success came to Willem de Kooning (it works) during his lifetime. In 1989 (and that was the time of art-бума) dvuhmetrovaya abstraction of de Kooning "Mixing" was sold at Sotheby's for unthinkable at that time for the modern artist $20.7 million However, the author was hardly to this matter: by the time a progressive disease of Alzheimer's made the artist unable to work, but even to manage his property, was issued the corresponding judicial verdict. Nevertheless, the last eight years of his life, Willem de Kooning officially considered by the author the most expensive work of living artists.

the works of abstract artist after his death in 1997 continued to rise in price. And what-то absolutely fabulous deals with the works of Willem de Kooning were held privately, and not through auctions. We initially try to take all our ratings results only from open trading platforms, because we believe them more real reflection of the situation on the art-рынке. Private transactions are more prone to influence of subjective factors: who and what is buying, which dealers conduct a transaction on the basis of which the price is set. Sometimes millionaire is not a pity to pay twice-втрое just to get the desired thing. The auction estimate, as a rule, more close to reality, but if you have a few hot thirsty contenders, we can expect a significant excess of the estimate. However, so far, the best auction result for Willem de Kooning not be compared with his private sales.

It comes in-первых the well-known private sale of the painting "Woman III", 1953. This work of the most famous series of Willem de Kooning's "Women" from 1970-х years belonged to the collection of the Tehran Museum of contemporary art. But the story of the Islamic revolution made it impossible to continue the presence there of such secular works. As a result, in 1994, "Woman III" was sold and exported outside of Iran. She came to American art collector David Geffen, who, in turn, in 2006 and resold it in a private transaction from Steven Cohen was mad at the time to $137.5 million for a Short time it was the most expensive in the world a work of art. Not Picasso, not Klimt, and the American abstract expressionist of the second half of the twentieth century. In this respect, be compared to De Kooning can only Jackson Pollock, whose abstract, or "dripping", in private transactions bought for the same money (a few months later, in the same 2006 Pollock's "No. 5" was sold in a private transaction for $140 million).

In 2016, de Kooning and Pollock reiterated in the pair. The market insiders said that in February of 2016 in a private transaction billionaire Ken Griffin bought the work of Willem de Kooning's "Confusion" over $300 million (the same that in 1989 was sold for $20.7 million) and the abstraction of Jackson Pollock's "Number 17" for $200 million Is one of the largest in the world deals with art.The current price of "Mixing" — $300 million — puts the work of de Kooning in line with the work of Paul Gauguin "Nafea Faa Ipoipo" ("When will you marry?") 1892, sold in a private transaction in late 2014 for the same amount. Thus, if we take into account not only the auction results and information about private transactions, these two paintings top the list of most expensive works of art in the world (as of December 2016).

But ranking our ranking is conducted on the auction results, according to these indicators, Willem de Kooning is far behind leaders like Picasso or Giacometti. Even more — auction a reason to add it to the world's top artists have appeared only at the end of 2016. Abstraction "untitled XXV" in 1977 at the auction of postwar and contemporary art Christie's November 15, 2016 was sold for $66,3 million the last time this work changed hands in 2006-м: then she went for $27.1 million But since then, thanks to the aforementioned private transactions, as well as loud retrospective at MOMA in 2012, the auction market De Kooning grew up, and now its max — $66,3 million.

24. $60,5 million Paul Cezanne. Drapery, jug and kompotnitsa. OK. 1893-1894

the presence in the list of Paul cézanne (1839-1906) — is a kind of tribute to the discovery and search of the artist, laid the foundations of cubism, and a number of other areas of the twentieth century. It is noteworthy that at auction for a record amount was purchased this classic and so typical of Cezanne painting — "Drapery, jug and kompotnitsa". This still life is a series of six works depicting the same items. The painting was sold at Sotheby's in 1999 for $60.5 million

In this work, showed all the most striking peculiarities of style of the artist: the desire to reduce all subjects to geometric forms — cylinder, ball and cone, clear color, monumental forms. If the Impressionists tried to capture the changing features of nature, the Cezanne created "paintings for museums", passing the immutable part of nature. He managed in one picture to combine several points of view on subjects, combining the techniques of direct and inverse perspective, preparing the transition to cubism. His still lifes, he wrote a long, carefully checked the image. Findings Cezanne has created a whole army of his ideological followers, "sezannistov", divide and develop the artist's ideas. His influence on the art world of the turn of the century and, of course, Russian art (remember the "Jack of diamonds") is difficult to overestimate.

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