Rothko Mark
Pseudonyms,autonyms and aliases: Markus Yakovlevich Rothkovits, Rothkovich 1903–1970

mark ROTHKO (Marcus rothkowitz Y.)

25 сентября 1903 (Dvinsk, Vitebsk province) — 25 февраля 1970 (new-Йорк)

Painter, graphic artist

From an educated Jewish family in which we spoke Hebrew, Yiddish and Russian; the son of a pharmacist. In 1913 together with family emigrated to USA and settled in Portland (Oregon). Studied sociology, Economics, Philology, exact and natural science at Yale University (1921-1923, did not graduate). About 1923 he was fond of art. Attended School of arts "Grand Central" (1925), where he studied in the class А. Горки; Art student's League in new-Йорке (1925-1930, with interruptions), in 1925-1926 he studied in class of a still life I М. Вебера.

Lived in new-Йорке, in 1946, became an American citizen. Repeatedly made the trip to Europe (1950, 1959, 1966). In the early period went through a fascination with expressionism and surrealism, was influenced by creativity П. Клее and Ж. Руо. In 1930-х closer to М. Авери and А. Готлибом. One of the founders and exponents of the group "the Ten" (The Ten; 1935-1939). In 1936-1937 worked in the Federal art project of the Department of public works (Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration).

From 1940 he used the alias, in 1959 enshrined the legally alias. In the late 1930-х — the first half of 1940-х participated in the activities of associations: the Congress of American artists (1936-1938), Modern American painters (1943), new-Йоркских painters (1943), the Federation of modern painters and sculptors (1940-1943).

Individual style was formed in 1947 under the influence of art А. Матисса, German expressionists, К. С. Малевича and other masters of Russian avant-garde. 1950-60-е — the heyday of the artist's work. From figurative and semi-abstract works on mythological and fantastic plots 1930-40-х he came to create abstract compositions, gradually simplifying the structure of his paintings to two — three zones of bright solid color. Along with Б. Ньюманом, one of the founders of "painting color fields".

Studied the execution of large orders: the series paintings (panels) for the restaurant "seasons" in a skyscraper Seagram-building in new-Йорке. Completed painting in holyoak-центре Harvard University (1958-1961), as well as interfaith funeral chapel in Houston (1962-1964, the Rothko Chapel).

From 1928 — participated in exhibitions. His personal exhibitions were held in Portland (Oregon 1933), new-йоркских galleries "Mortimer Brandt" (1846), "Betty Parsons" (1946, 1948, 1949), "S. Janis" (1955). Participated in numerous group exhibitions American artists — for example, "Nine American painters" in the gallery "S. Janis" (1954); exhibited at 29-й international art exhibition in Venice (1958). A retrospective exhibition was held at the Museum of modern art in new-Йорке (1961), the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam (1961).

he Taught at the California school of fine arts in San-Франциско (1947-1949), Brooklyn College (1929-1952), the University of Colorado, Tulane University. Member of the American Academy of arts and Sciences (1968). Received an honorary degree from Yale University (1969).

In the late 1960-х had internal drama associated with severe disease (arterial aneurysm) separation and divorce. In 1970, committed suicide in his new-йоркской Studio. He was buried in the cemetery East-Мэрион long-Айленде; in 2006 перезахоронен in kensico (state of new-Йорк).

a Memorial and retrospective exhibitions were held in Rotterdam (1971-1972, Museum Boijmans-ван-Бенингена), new-Йорке (1978, Guggenheim Museum), London (1987, Tate gallery), Liverpool (1988-1989, Tate gallery), Washington, new-Йорке, Paris (1998-1999, national art gallery, Museum of American art Whitney Museum of modern art de La Ville), Basel (2001), Rome (2007-2008). In Russia exhibitions of the artist took place in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg (2003-2004), the Center for contemporary culture "Garage" in Moscow (2010).

Work is represented in major Museum collections of contemporary art: the Museum of modern art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Metropolitan Museum, the Museum of American art the Whitney, the Brooklyn Museum in new-Йорке, the National gallery and the Phillips collection in Washington, the art Institute of Chicago, the Boston Museum of fine arts, the Tate gallery in London, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, the Museum Thyssen-Борнемисса in Madrid.

Sources:
1. American artists of the Russian Empire. Painting, sculpture from museums and galleries in the U.S. and private collections / Almanac. Vol. 208. St. Petersburg, 2008. S. 278.
2. Mark Rothko. Exhibition. Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington; Whitney Museum of American Art, New-York; Musée d'art Moderne de la Ville, Paris. Washington, 1998.
3. en.wikipedia.org
4. nga.gov
5. markrothko.com
6. rothkochapel.org

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