Artist of the week: Alexander Deineka
ARTinvestment.RU   30 июля 2013

Hold on "Mayakovskaya" or "Novokuznetskaya", lift your head up —, and you will see mosaic Deineka. And not over you the earth strata — through the window images one can see the sky, skydivers, flying planes, fuming factory chimneys and the tops of flowering trees

In times of total domination of social realism in our country work Deineki, not shone purity of style, invariably become the key artifacts of the Soviet art exhibitions abroad, including the Venice Biennale. Pictorial language Deineki so impressed that many of his paintings, bought with those places, settled in Western collections. And even almost a century later, in 2011, it was his stuff was taken to the Roman exhibition in the framework of the year of cultural exchange. Italians us - Caravaggio, and we give them - Deineka.

As the modern scholar of the artist Andrei Kovalev, talent Deineki could well develop into the bosom of American social realists, Mexican muralistov or even Italian-German fascists. But all these ways to Deineki were too small. It was the Soviet state desperately needs the bearer of their ideas, goals and objectives established for Deineki sufficient scale field operations. For a fairly long life of Alexander tried his hand at painting, drawing (including magazines, books, posters and theater), monumental art (murals, frescoes, mosaics) and sculpture. But in talking about the most important Deineka not even describe a variety of techniques, and the significance of those for which they were applied. Dejneka idealized Soviet world at a time when the concept of socialist realism is not invented. And when the country has no other style of permitted, except for social realism, Dejneka still working on. His avant-garde style evolved towards social realism, but his works of this are no less sincere. The reason probably is that the proletarian state all his life he loved to the heart, not by force.

Dejneka Alexander (according to another version, Deyneko) was born on 8 (20) May 1899 in the family of a railroad mechanic in the county Kursk. From childhood he absorbed the customs and practices of the working class, grew up in a simple, not very pious family. The nature of the boy was strong-willed, his boyish pranks tempered dangerous races like skating on thin ice, raids on other people's gardens, street fights, etc. However, the desire for a beautiful boy always was: a walk through the surrounding fields and woods brought a love of nature, illustration from the magazine "Niva" and popular prints acquainted with art. As a gift from her grandmother behind my parents were first album pictures - soldiers, organ-grinders, birders, ladies, different animals (drawings, alas, did not survive). "Since I can remember, I was always drawing" - recalled Dejneka.

While attending primary school in Kursk Dejneka passionately fond of Science, Mathematics, and even dreamed of becoming an engineer. At the same time he studied drawing at the studio of local artists Kursk MN Yakymenko-Zabuga, V. Golikov and AA Poletika. Teachers spotted talent in the boy and told him to go to the Kharkiv Art College, where Dejneka successfully enrolled in 1916 in the class of MR Pestrikova. Do not just paint, but make your drawings to life Alexander Deineka had to learn at an early age: creative people openly disliked his father, to the choice of his son reacted skeptically to help him financially and was not going to. Artist academic proficiency, MR Pestrikov drilled students in the classical picture. Deineka himself drawn more to the plot than to the sprawling, impasto painting by Impressionist and Symbolist, and not only because of the creative preferences. He recalled that once on hard money saved up bought an expensive set of paints and so ashore and pitied him, that he tried to apply the paint in thin layers. Seeing this, the professor M. Lyubimov told the student to work with thick, broad strokes - and one sketch gone almost the entire set. Dejneka was upset, because the new paint would have to save up for a month.

After the February Revolution of classes in the school ceased. Deineka had to work as an art teacher at a girls' school, the theater artist in Kursk, a photographer for the criminal investigation, designer propaganda train. The revolutionary events captivated the young man of eighteen, who had no reason and religion, family, physical - to resist change. Impressed by what is happening, he even published a newspaper like the Kursk manifesto on the tasks of art in modern times: "I firmly believe in the great art of the day ... Who or grab our day? Bright ... gusts titanic swings proletariat ... want to write a thousand semi-precious stone, to capture this heroic struggle of the proletarian masses ... "Dejneka going to write, no more, no less," the beauty of plants "and" the work of collective creation "for the" temples of modern times. "

What to write - he knew, but how - is not very. Kursk department of education has attracted the artist to propaganda work, commissioned to illustrate the poems of Mayakovsky placards of the type "Windows of growth." Looking at fashionable "isms" in the capital trips Dejneka began to "impose on the Kursk potholes bright cubism." The first of his monumental mural in the cubist style then turned into beautiful sheds for local shopkeepers. Felt the need to continue training, and in 1921 sent Deineka improve skills VHUTEMAS (Higher Art and Technical Studios).

VHUTEMAS in the early 1920s - is another story. Dejneka recalled: "It's like today, I sit on the barrier dry fountain in a small courtyard with a garden and watch the bustling people crowding around. Here is a low-key, with a black beard Prusakov , listens chubby, with a shock of hair on his head, gesturing wildly Andriusha Goncharov . It takes a graceful Peter Williams with a young blond Sergei exemplary. Alone, not knowing each other, wander future Kukryniksy . Stomp cute goof Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein , with the camera sitting in a circle of associates Rodchenko ... And here is the professor. Mighty Pyotr Konchalovsky arguing about something with a small, barely able to keep up with him Schr . By taking the time stalked by a peasant dressed bearded Tabor ... »By the way, graphic department Vladimir Tabor chose Dejneka of all diversity, taught at that time in VKhUTEMAS. Graphic art, he found most useful for propaganda purposes. Drawings, which can then be had to publish thousands of copies - that's what I dreamed about young Dejneka. A Tabor, however, taught him classical engraving - useful, but not so important. Student Dejneka winter lived in five degrees of heat, worked at night, but never lost his enthusiasm. He was one of the best in boxing section VKhUTEMAS (say, even fought with the champion Gradopolovym, whose portrait later wrote).

Since 1923, in addition to studying Dejneka began collaborating with the magazine "Atheist at the barre" , a little later - with editions "We machine", "Spotlight", "Give," "Red Field", "Change". Magazine graphics artist actively engaged until the early 1930s. During this time, he created hundreds of paintings, many of which served as the basis for future paintings. It is in many ways magazines deynekovsky created a unique style. Many graphic techniques then went into the painting of the artist. The specifics of a periodical (threading, time-limited, low quality) were forced to adapt to work quickly, simplify design and invest a maximum of meaning in form and composition. The illustrations Deineki, monochrome or just two or three colors, instantly recognizable social types - farmer, pioneer, NEP man, a priest, or a Red Army soldier. However, cartoons drawings Deineki still difficult to call. For all credibility, humor in them was less than the same Kukryniksi. In the work Dejneka then very far away from satire.

Golden youth. 1928
figure for the magazine "Spotlight", 1929, № 8
Ink on paper. 34.3 x 40. Timing
Source: Dejneka. Schedule. Moscow: Publishing Program "Interros", 2009. S. 46

ALEXANDER DEINEKO The new construction
Magazine illustration. Fragment
«Godless at the bench," 1926, № 11
Source: Dejneka. Schedule. Moscow: Publishing Program "Interros", 2009. Pp. 108

Meanwhile in VKhUTEMAS the mid-1920s formed an art group OST - "Society of Easel". They were young artists united by a love of easel painting, despite the fact that the constructivists and other far-left picture heralded as a work of art demise. In his paintings ostovtsy sang industrial, urban world, technological progress, people's production. World of cars railway Dejneka son was captured, as we remember from childhood. Therefore, osteitis, he became one of the main participants (as long as it left the union).

picturesque style Deineki had already fully formed. At the First Discussion Exhibition (1924), which preceded the formation of the OST, in company with Dejneka Yuri Yuri Ivanovich Pimenov and Andrei Goncharov set his painting "Football". A very long time, he wanted to paint a picture of their favorite game, but numerous sketches of traditional compositional schemes do not transmit the dynamics of the match. And then Dejneka decided once he paints a picture of what no one had ever portrayed, he has to invent for her new song - "the game gave me the language of your self." Since then Dejneka bold and very well experimented with placing his characters on the surface of the canvas, portrayed them in unexpected angles, passed dynamics poses. At the same time tried to bring the form to the extent of generalization, that it spoke for itself, without explaining the details of the composition and cluttering.

Another feature of the early paintings Deineki was their graphic quality - clear silhouettes, contrast with the background, some flatness, clear color separation and sparse color palette. At first, the artist was attracted to almost monochrome, and in general to the dark, gloomy color. Other members of the OST were also different graphic quality, dry letter, as opposed to a loose impressionistic style. Paintings by Deineki 1920 reminded many times bigger picture. Many of the paintings, and the truth, preceded by coffee illustration. Great influence on the German Expressionists had Deineka (Otto Dix, Emil Nolde, Oskar Kokoschka, George Gross), whose works are brought to the exhibition in Moscow in autumn 1924.

Oil on canvas. 105 x 113,5
Private Collection

Before descending into the mine. 1925
Oil on canvas. 248 x 210. TG

The first exhibition of OST in 1925 Dejneka shows the painting "Before descending into the mine" and "In the mine," inspired by the trip to the Donbass. Of black coal dust miners working weekdays artist was able to pass through the little black-and-white palette. The track "Before descending into the mine" creates a sense of vertical elongation, as if you are anticipating a long descent into the bowels of the earth. This painting is based on the figure in 1924, published in the journal "We machine».

the next exhibition, OST, in 1926 Dejneka struck all the painting "On the construction of new plants." In his poetizatsii physical work the artist has achieved unprecedented heights. The limiting the generality of images turns them into characters. In the foreground is brought down and a strong woman in a dark dress with ease pushes a cart loaded with coal, left and above - a young and easy, but the same strong woman in a sky-blue dress. They - the symbols of the present and the future of the Soviet country - were talking, smiling to each other. The figures for all its flatness and a graphic quality, nevertheless possess a "purely picturesque weightiness in the spirit of Michelangelo," as the leading Western scholar of creativity Deineki Christina Kjaer. Openwork roof plant being built out into the distance, adds some depth dynamism of the composition. In the picture there is a twofold documentary, almost all of the rules of realistic painting violated, but it is seen as yet very vital. As the author says, "the art of higher likelihood of life, it must be life itself».

On the construction of new plants. 1926
Oil on canvas. 213 x 201. TG

Oil on canvas. 171 x 195. Timing

In late 1927 - early 1928, the country celebrated just two important dates: the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution and the 10th anniversary of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army. The jubilee exhibition Alexander artist created two iconic works - paintings, "Weavers" and "The Defense of Petrograd." In these works, with all the more force began to show the artist's monumental thrust. How Dejneka later wrote about the "Weavers'," he handles the surface, making it smooth, lacquered, vaguely wanting to find unity with the texture of the surface of the polished, bright, yet existing walls, for which he wanted to paint. " Presented at the exhibition for the 10th anniversary of the October picture "Weavers" is solved in a light, almost white colors with shades of red ocher on their faces and hands of girls. Honed movement girls are subject to the rhythm of the looms, the girls seemed woven into the pattern of the reels and spools, man and machine merge into a kind of organic whole.

More ostovskuyu thing is hard to imagine, but in the fourth

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