Artists of the week: "gazanevtsy"
ARTinvestment.RU   13 марта 2012

For the first time as an "artist of the week" we have chosen not one, but a group of representatives of unofficial art in Leningrad in 1960-90s

the first time as an "artist of the week" we have chosen not one, but a group of representatives of unofficial art in Leningrad in 1960-90s. The cause and excuse - the presentation of a new documentary film "Top Blue Lagoon," which will be held March 16, 2012 in Moscow Gallery A3.

on Leningrad nonconformist who became heroes of the film, ARTinvestment.RU asked to describe a philosopher, critic, scholar, and witness the era Dudinsky Igor . Below is the text to the preservation of copyright evaluations .

«Gazanevtsami" they are called in two historical exhibitions of nonconformist artists, held in a recreation center named after II Strip (22 - December 25, 1974, about 50 artists) and DC "Nevsky" (10-20 September 1975, about 90 artists).

shows went down in history as the first non-art officially sanctioned by city authorities. The assignment was made possible after the police broke up the infamous "bulldozer" exhibition in Moscow. Thus, the authorities had to justify themselves before indignant "world community».

Participants' gazanevskih exhibitions "were artists who had time to gain unquestioned authority and popularity among progressive intellectuals from St. Petersburg - EZ Abezgauz , AD Aref , AN Basin , AP Belkin , G. S. Bogomolov , JA Vinkovetsky , VV Gavrilchik , AB Gennadiev , Zharkikh , G. Zubkov , VA Mishin , VA Ovchinnikov , EL Rukhin , IV Tulips , VN Shagin .

Both exhibitions have become important milestones in the history of the Leningrad independent culture and caused a surge of public interest in contemporary art, which first appeared before the audience in a wide variety of styles - abstract, pop art, figurativa, surrealism, etc.

Gazanevskaya culture brought out of hiding dozens of artists that did not belong to the Union of Artists and rejected the canons of "socialist realism." It marked the beginning of series of independent legal group exhibitions of art and contributed to the development began in the 1960s, the tradition of apartment shows.

At the end of 1975 the group formed a partnership gazanevtsev experimental exhibitions (VTE).

in the 1970s in organizing exhibitions of nonconformist art was actively involved creative team of artists and art critics - students and followers Vladimir V. Sterligov (1904-1973), who were represented at the exhibition of nonconformist artists in the Palace of Culture. I. Strip (1975).

In 1960 Vladimir Sterligov has formulated a new principle of Plastic perception of the world, based on a curved "bowl-dome" (by definition) of the . In subsequent years, it was joined by many disciples and followers, who visited his home and studio (Lenin Street, 52).

«Sterligov School" had no official status, and creativity of the teachers do not received official recognition (his only lifetime exhibition with his wife , arranged in 1966, LOSH was authorities closed four hours after opening).

In the 1970s, associations of artists emerged like mushrooms after rain. In particular, the national principle (to go abroad) was formed by the Jewish group "Aleph." One even had an exhibition of "11 artists prisoners - victims of repression," which only foreigners allowed to visit.

scale and lofty purity of thought, realized in monumental and clear plastic form, were characteristic of artists Group "School of the Temple walls." The union emerged in 1976. Its members were direct descendants of the Leningrad nonconformist decades of totalitarian art with their religion, salutary synthesis of artistry, mystery and unflinching devotion to the highest values ​​of art.

At that time, a real, free teacher became a prophet. His "holy heresy," his relentless skill remained in the memory and deeds. So the Prophet stayed for those who joined the group, who died long before the emergence of Osip Abramovich Sidlin (1909-1972). Few have survived of his work - evidence of devotion to "sacred craft," uncompromising, unselfish, high-order of the soul, the ability to fuse with the logic of poetry, to find a spot within a universe of color nuances and still keep it in the plane and the "hook" with spots of different colors and shades. The student Sidlin Yuri Nashivochnikov gathered around him young artists, which became the basis for the "School of the Temple walls».

Leningrad nonconformist, following the example of Moscow began to carry out numerous exhibitions in private apartments and studios. Some of these shops have become permanent. Their owners are usually subjected to repression by the KGB. The most famous use of the exhibition on the flats K. Kuzminski, V. Nechaev, S. Kazarinova, G. Mikhailov, T. Valenta.

Thus, in Leningrad, was formed community of independent artists rejected, immediately attracted to his side many supporters and followers. Attendance and public interest "underground" exhibitions were unprecedented. Artists Rukhin, hot, Aref became influential community leaders.

the same time, the invisible war state with nonconformists intensified and moved into a more assertive phase. Politics crackdown has led to a significant number of artists were forced to emigrate, others have gone underground. There was a time of sadness.

parallel maturing new generation of artists - both young and coinciding with the age gazanevtsami, but with a different attitude. They used a more sophisticated strategy in the struggle for the recognition of his art and, in particular, the movement organized a "second wave" that began with the famous apartment Exhibition 14-17 November 1981 - in front of evicted overhaul Bronnitskaya house on the street. As a result, the northern capital, there was the largest and most influential in the entire Soviet era, alternative artists association - Association of Experimental Fine Arts (TEII).

The purpose of the organization was to overcome the crisis caused by the division into " official "and" unofficial "art. The first in the union of the exhibitors have entered "on Bronnitskaya." Soon the number of members reached 140 artists. For 10 years the association had been organized 13 public and 48 group and seven solo exhibitions, which attracted more than a million viewers. The expositions was attended by over 500 artists, exhibited about 10 thousand pieces. As part of TEII 9 feature teams there, "Inaki", "Alypius," "Chronicle", "5/4", "Mitka", "The Island", "New Artists", "Nekrorealisty" and "Tier».

In 1991, the successor to the partnership became Art Center "Pushkin, 10", aimed at non-profit contemporary art. The center courtyard is the famous street of John Lennon. Art Center "Pushkin, 10," dates back to 1989 when, in an abandoned house on Pushkin Street settled independent artists, musicians and other figures of the underground culture. It was later officially registered non-governmental non-profit organization, now called the "Free Culture».

In 1998, the Partnership has set up within the walls of the house on the first in Russia Pushkin Museum of Nonconformist Art.

generalized image of the artist's time in DC Strip shows and "Nevsky" - misunderstood genius, a prophet, a romantic, a victim of repression. It seeks to talk more about art and more protected than attacking or accusing.

new generation in the face of the next generation begins to understand the artist's image is much wider - which corresponded to marching in the world with the 1960 process the collapse of uniform criteria for evaluating works of art, the devaluation of the concept of style, authorship, etc., and most importantly - pragmatism and commercialization of art.

Artists "second wave" characterized by assertiveness, strategic mind, a willingness to boldly go into the attack and maneuver to achieve his goal.

from the "second wave" comes a new type of artist, curator, defined the art scene for the next decade, allowing independent movement to preserve the unity, to survive and get through all the tests the following decades.

new generation of artists really were natural-born "samopiarschikami" mythmaker, "creatives" and masters of public relations. Largely thanks to the skilful promotion projects have achieved great success, led by such parties' Bronnitskaya exhibition, "as T. (the "New Artists»), D. («Mitka»), S. Kowalski (« 5/4 »), K. Miller , B. Koshelokhov, Y. Rybakov.

Any artistic phenomenon primarily consists of his creators, personalities of the authors. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe the range of specific stars of the Leningrad nonconformity, who wrote his paintings were exhibited, and in fear of possible reprisals, "excommunication", expulsions formed a protest art.

Aref Alexander D. ( 1931-1978)

From his childhood he lived in Leningrad. He studied at the Art School (1942-1949). Excluded from the 9th grade for "formalism". He continued his studies at the Institute of Medicine (1950-1953).

He painted landscapes and genre scenes inspired by the images of postwar life in Leningrad, turned to mythological and fantastic plots. His works are distinguished by the expressive plasticity and exaggerated drama.

In the 1950s, led a group of freelancers (called arefevsky circle) - VN Shagin , RR Vasmi , S. Schwartz and others, which pioneered the independent cultural movement in Leningrad. He participated in exhibitions of unofficial art, including "gazanevskih" exhibitions 1974-1975 period.

In 1977 he emigrated, he lived in Paris.

Anatoly Pavlovich Belkin (1953)

was born in Moscow. Engaged in visual arts since childhood. He studied at the Summer School in Siverskaya watercolor (teacher BA Rybin) and SKHSH Academy of Fine Arts (LS teachers Sholokhov and Bulygin AF). Later attended classes at the Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture named after Repin.

At the end of the 1970s, met with artists and poets, "informal" circle, especially with visitors to the apartment K. Kuzminski .

Participated in most exhibitions of "unofficial" artists "primitive" (1971-1972), the flat K. Kuzminski (1973), Department of Psychology at LSU (1973), in DC behalf of the Strip and the "Nevsky» (1974-1975).

In DC Dzerzhinsky had his first solo exhibition (1977). Since 1982, A. Belkin participates in exhibitions TEII. Already in 1976 his work included in the foreign exposure "resistant" art abroad.

In the work A.Belkin peculiar combination of two directions. He pays much attention to sotsartu, the study of the surrounding community and street life (especially in the 1970s - early 1980s, with reminiscences of the oberiutov and O. Grigoriev). On the other hand, his work is characterized by lyricism and love for the smallest signs of life of old St. Petersburg, which the artist finds his true spiritual home.

Gavrilchik Vladlen V. (1929)

was born on November 27, 1929 on the road to Termez, the Uzbek SSR in the family of the chief outpost on the Soviet-Afghan border. According to his colleague and friend, "one of the brightest talents on, meanness, duality, cynicism, deceit and conceit (which is a set of characteristics) of individuals encountered on the path of life. And the whole reason - the mentality of (recently very fashionable word, used throughout the social pyramid of the country - from the president to vile scum). He Tatar origin. Therefore, it combines Eastern and Russian duplicity binge carelessness and unselfishness. And all this flavored malicious humor, reaching to the sarcasm, but simply put - up figs in your pocket ».

In 1947 he graduated from the Tashkent Suvorov Military School. Then the Leningrad Higher Naval School. After transfer to the reserve in 1955, settled in Leningrad, where he began working in the design office. In 1960 he began to paint as an artist, amateur and compose poems.

In painting Gavrilchik self-taught. He began serious study in a rather mature age, of course, were the prerequisites. Probably still in college Nakhimovskom daub wall newspapers than terribly proud of.

late artist Nikolai Lyubushkin (who died in Paris) said that they learned with the Gavrilchik in the second half of the 1960s have Ukrainian artist Vasily Basil Field , who lived at that time in Leningrad.

Gavrilchik proved recalcitrant pupil. He yelled at a teacher and otherwise abused him. He was attracted to the original creation, to which he was not yet available, but the teacher had taught him the basics, the fundamentals of painting. According to the late Lyubushkin, painter Field generally escaped from Leningrad Gavrilchik driven to psychosis and nervous tic.

first work Gavrilchik - objects on the surface of the hardboard (he loves this stuff) planar but composition organized. Geometric shapes, things like junk cartridge case, ruler, etc.

the same time he wrote self-portraits, numerous self portraits. Self-portrait in the guise of Mephistopheles, a self-portrait in the form of Pan, a self-portrait in the form of Red Guard 20s, etc. And with all of us looking a person who knows the price we man with a sly squint, wood boring beetles with fire in his eyes.

Then he begins to paint portraits of friends and acquaintances, and give away the work. In the selflessness and generosity he can not refuse.

At first he wrote in tempera, with time for oil changes.

work to order, for the sake of money, He began rather late - in the late 70's. In the history of painting Gavrilchik entered as a portraitist and painter and satirist.

Gennadiev Andrew B. (1947)

came in the artistic life of Leningrad in the early seventies. His personal and artistic destiny, like most of his peers do not have joined in the general direction of "official" art in conflict with the "legal" permissible scope, evolved hard, sometimes tragic.

After participating in a controversial exhibition at the Palace of Culture named after I. Strip (1974), where he first joined creative forces of the "left" of the arts, A. Gennadiev falls into the black list of forbidden artists.

I remember one of the early paintings of the artist, where he identifies his life with the fate of his hero. He also, like his "Wanderer" in the journey, the drawn him over, seeking mysterious land into a beautiful dream.

in the spiritual quest of the artist he is opposed to the other - the real world is bitter, and sometimes cruel reality, whose spokesman on canvas are distorted grimaces mask. Their multiplicity, which embodies the brink of human feelings, adds dramatic image of the fate of a single man who found the strength to "transcend" through all the petty, insignificant, vanity, unworthy of his high thoughts.

As a member of the group

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