How the blockchain could change the art-рынок
ARTinvestment.RU   24 августа 2017

Rapidly developing technologies based on the blockchain will allow to make deals in a Network is very simple, cheap, without intermediaries and phenomenally safe. The coming global changes in the business-процессах. And art-рынка also fail to Dodge the progress

About the blockchain, cryptocurrency, mining, and "smart contracts" today we hear from each iron. "Iron" while in a metaphorical sense, but with the rapid development of "Internet of things" will soon become and literally. A person older than 40 years of history with bloccano may seem at best a mass psychosis, and the worst — deception. The impression generally produces all new outrageous, shameless breaking into our ordinary life. But blockchain — not cheating. This is a really strong revolutionary mathematics, which flourished on the basis of the high accessibility of powerful computing resources. Looking ahead, I will say that to brush off the blockchain today — is like yesterday to dismiss from the Internet. So be prepared in advance and everyone, including the most conservative members of the art market.

So what do we have coming? What this means for art-рынка? Start to offer the incomprehensible to most of us words. So:

What is the blockchain? the "block Chain", literally translated, — is a way of saving, encryption, and data management, which is practically impossible to forge and to change retroactively the history of their replenishment. Data on transactions, purchase history-продажи, the rights of ownership, copyright and other can be stored in the registry (in a distributed database, the blockchain) so that they are not to falsify or maliciously changed. Because the registry is "smeared" on hundreds and thousands of computers on which it stored a full copy of — history of all transactions. What gives? It turned out that when applied correctly, the blockchain could provide a global solution to the problem of distrust between the different participants in economic activities. This technology potentially eliminates the issue, which previously required the involvement of the army of lawyers, advocates, notaries and bankers.

Which means "to put into the blockchain", "write to the blockchain", "check the blockchain"? When I say that the man decided to sell the painting and "registered the application on the blockchain", then think of it this way. The owner of the picture comes on for a future site ARTinvestment.RU, presses the button "Sell picture", fills out a form describing the work (or slanders voice), then says "Send". That's about it. Further information is emitted in a distributed database (the block chain, which is connected to the website) and start the procedure of sale. That is, its interaction with bloccano imagine how the sunset on a website or as a conversation with a smartphone. "OK, Google, sell my painting on ARTinvestment" or "Siri, will you please give ARTinvestment that I am the owner (or author) of this picture." Like this.

Why do we need a cryptocurrency? the Turnover and the issue of the cryptocurrency — private when using a distributed database "Blockchain". "Bitcoins", "esters", "litecoin" — all these options are "digital cash" that can be exchanged for dollars and euros. If you take all precautions, the cryptocurrency canto preserve their anonymity. How about with cash. Payments are made quickly, without weekends and holidays. In addition, "emissions" and circulation of new electronic money is not controlled by individual States, so many countries dislike them yet. But Moscow was not built. At this stage it is enough to understand that cryptocurrency — potentially the most suitable tool supporting the transactions recorded through the blockchain. In turn, "mining", which are all going crazy — is a way to earn bitcoin in exchange for services (support of functioning) network of the blockchain. Physically, the miners@-"miners" run special software on their computers powerful modified (farms), and calculation results on their farms to them in the wallets, "drip" e-money. To use bitcoins, the average person enough to download the app-кошелек from Google Play or App Store on your smartphone. For example, , this.

That for an animal "Internet of things" (Internet of things — IoT)? Is a generic name for interactions with household appliances and various equipment with each other through a global Network. When the refrigerator for $600 sends you via Wi-Fi on the iPhone the temperature in the freezer — is the beginning of the era of "Internet of things". Or when Libra send it to the phone schedule reduce excess weight. But this is only while the "Internet of things" is so peaceful. Capitalism will sooner or later figure out how to use it for the benefit of corporations. For example, did not make a payment for a car loan — "smart" in IoT will lock the door and goodbye. Not a paid customer on time mortgage payment — door won't open and spend the night on the Mat. However why are we all of a sudden? Well, Yes... in the beginning of W where-то was about iron.

What constitutes "smart contracts"? In fact, it's algorithms for business and other agreements between people on the basis of the blockchain, invented by a native of Russia Vitaly Baleriny. They allow you to adhere strictly to the terms of the transaction, unless the parties clearly fulfill their obligations. For example, a "smart contract" through the blockchain is guaranteed to poison the money to the seller of the picture and the Commission for the intermediary, provided that the expert organization through the blockchain confirmed the authenticity of the work. There's no excuses. With bloccano people do not necessarily trust each other personally: over the observance of mutual obligations will ensure dispassionate a software algorithm.

Why the introduction of the blockchain will lead to a global restructuring of the economy and the business-процессов? The fact that all of what was previously defended the stamp papers and stamps, signatures, the nominee Directors of offshore companies and judicial decisions, tricky contracts, it is now possible to protect records in a secure, encrypted electronic registers. These registries will not be able to tamper with neither the state, nor the Corporation, nor the mafia, nor the army of hackers. So to conclude a deal soon will be how to reliably and cheaply. Including the art-рынке.

And not only the transaction of purchase-продажи.

are just some of the ways that the blockchain will in the future be applied in the art market:

1. The transparency of the provenance. the Blockchain by nature is not only suitableto monitor transactions, but also for fixing the entire history of life work. In the database (blockchain) can be confirmed information about participation in exhibitions, catalogues, publications, etc., That is, this technology is well suited for automated management of provenance affecting future investment future of the subject.

2. "Virtual notary". Confirmation of decisions in relation to ownership and various rights through the blockchain — is potentially a much more reliable technology than writing in paper journals of notaries. And more transparent. All-таки notary — man of flesh and blood, and therefore vulnerable to the temptations of coercion. About their actions notary-человек not obliged to report to other notaries, there is no reliable monitoring tools. And the blockchain can not hide anything and backdating of records is not changed. And, of course, everything should become easier and cheaper. With a "virtual notary" artists, in particular, will be easier to give works to the exhibition, or storage, avoiding in the future excesses with the return of the works, their illegal sale of and any costly legal red tape. Went to the site, arrange transfer of the paintings, pointed out the terms and conditions of their return, the information formed in the block of the blockchain, and then live in peace. Money the service will cost a nominal, and do it all without leaving home.

3. "Digital recorder" copyright. The artist can make a photo or video of the work, to fix the time of the event and to register on the blockchain copyright and ownership of their work. In the future it will help to monitor the resale and playback/publication of the work. In addition, the "digital recorder" — is also a way to set the priority of your innovative ideas in art. By analogy with copyright and patenting. After all, whether Malevich access blockchain, would not have him cover for colleagues-конкурентов in a hurry to throw the first Suprematist exhibition, to mystify the creation date of the key works, pointing to the paintings of earlier years. And not only Malevich.

4. Guarantee authentication via "smart labels and synthetic DNA". the point is that authorized by the artist of the work (for example, finished things in the Studio) can be labeled high-tech way, and the data about the mark of authenticity is recorded in the blockchain and will follow a pattern throughout her life. The use of smart labels should not be confused with mandatory certification — with a full description of the paintings with information about the owners. The amount of data output to the blockchain, it will be possible to limit at their discretion and thus partially solve the possible problem of distrust of the state.

5. Monitoring of authenticity and circulation of digital media art. As to ensure the confidence of the buyer in the resale of digital video? For example, works of media art from "AES f" or "Blue soup"? How to guarantee the observance of the circulation, uniqueness and authenticity? How to track what is sold and transferred over the network file, the intruders will not stick copies? A possible answer to these questions — to link the original media art registry-блокчейну. The issue of trust will potentially lead toto increase the number of collectors and the growth of the market of media art, which today are buying only the most daring collectors.

6. Registration and a quick check of expert opinions. Many people know that now we verify expert opinions coming up for auction paintings by hand: call and ask whether there was a paper about authenticity with this-то number and date. On the other end also looking for, check too, it's not fast. In General, each time is necessary, but a waste of time and effort. Feel what I'm sayin'? Alas, the electronic register of expert opinions still have not appeared for many reasons, one of which is — the concerns of experts that is shared will appear redundant information, which can be used for other purposes. However the blockchain theoretically solves this problem: the amount of information shared can be controlled. And nothing more buyers, by the way, don't need to.

7. "Smart contracts" between buyer art seller. as it Happens: the Internet people agree, money is listed, and the picture the recipient sent. Or Vice versa: the picture was sent, but no money. And the mind should be so: the buyer with the seller making a deal (e.g., via a form on the website ARTinvestment.RU), the decision to purchase is automatically registered in the blockchain, the system sees that the money from the buyer, but the seller receives them automatically only then, when the alert about the delivery of the painting to the buyer. This can be a notification from the transport company or even what-то form confirming compliance with the conditions of contract. In any case, one side will be convinced that the second is money and the second being — without picture of money will not give. Previously, to monitor the implementation of contracts assigned to banks (through the letter of credit) or other intermediaries (e.g. auction houses). But in the future this issue will cope the blockchain and "smart contracts".

8. "Smart contracts" that are integrated in the auctions. At the end of the auction automatically can trigger several conditions: deducted the payment from the winner earn Commission to auction and other contributions, to place the money to the seller after you confirm delivery. "Smart contract" at the end of bidding can automatically invite to the delivery transportation company, to inform all interested parties. And all this itself automatically, spending a lot of routine operations. In addition, with "smart contracts" auctions will be better protected from vandalism (arson rates) and bounce in the purchase of winning lots.

9. Automatic payment of taxes and other payments stipulated by the legislation. Blockchain allows you to effectively monitor the movement of the paintings in the public market, and indeed all the episodes of the change of their owners. Well, then in the course can join the familiar "smart-контракт": was selling — immediately accrue the tax, etc.

10. Securitization of art-рынка. we are Talking primarily about the production of various derivatives (e.g., art-акций), provided the real works of art. This idea excites many today. But just about it I mention without much enthusiasm, because the reasons of previous failures art-бирж wasnot technological. However today who-то (usually the financiers and investors who are far from art) at-прежнему believe that it is possible to "divide" the masterpieces of shares and trade them on the art-биржах. While denying possessive and selfish nature of the collector, which is the true spring of the art market. But the blockchain is not designed to straighten the dreamers brain. He created only in order to ensure the security of any transaction. Even such strange.

That some, but certainly not all of the scope of distributed databases in the art. But it is clear that the blockchain has the potential to provide a transparent and safe for buyers the back of pictures throughout their life cycle. There is a real technological possibility to trace the path of the paintings from the artist's Studio or from the first examination (antique paintings) to exhibitions, stages of change of owners and all episodes of output in the secondary (e.g., auction) market.

to imagine the scale of the consequences, let's turn on the imagination and imagine how it might look to the art auction in the future? Tell.

Suppose the buyer in Vladivostok decided to sell the painting by Boris Grigoriev. Expertise the paintings there. The owner of the photograph (or 3D-фото, as you wish), makes the data on the form (size, etc.) and registers a request for the sale in the blockchain (for example, on the website ARTinvestment.RU). Information about selling the painting quickly comes to the remote trading floor (auction) open to the public. Simultaneously and automatically with the deliverer on the site is "smart contract" with a standard set of conditions. At the appointed time the auction ends. For example, the winning buyer from Moscow, which, according to blockchain, there really is money to purchase. Then at the end of the auction triggered a "smart contract" kind "payment after inspection". By its terms, information about the picture automatically goes to the transport company and an expert organization where it is put in the queue and start waiting. The picture goes to Moscow, the examination permit. Writing about it immediately enters the blockchain, and at this point the seller receives the money. The transaction is completed, and "smart contract" authorizes payment of Commission to the auction. And competition and reducing the costs of the mediator will reduce the fee from the buyer from the current 15 % to, for example, 3 %. Another good news for the buyer.

even today, it sounds like new-Васюки. But, still the potential for abuse in the scheme, almost none. Participants earn only at the moment when all conditions of the transaction performed.

Reliable, cheap and transparent. At least in theory.

But here comes the most important question: how does this market today? All market players are notorious crave transparency?

can Definitely say: no, definitely not all. At first, the resistance will be at many levels. Here are a few reasons that will hinder the rapid introduction of the blockchain on the art-рынке:

1. The historical inertia of some market participants. for Example, how manylong to explain that access a single database of expert opinions — is a benefit for the market. But if the experts themselves against (and that we saw with our own eyes), it quickly nothing will move. Or you can a long time to convince in use chip implantation and certification of cultural property, but if the collectors are against it, then get will not work. Major transactions for many years will be in quiet places, to, God forbid, no prying eyes. And in the Internet — for anything. Yes there on the Internet... nowadays there are market participants that is not something that the Internet did not show, and even Bank accounts do not hold. To any database and not get to any thread with the official system are not linked. We must admit that today's art remains a rare asset that is not required to register (unlike real estate, stocks and shares, etc.) and do as-то to publish. Not all the participants of the art market wants this closed world understanding in the lives of people climbed the young geeks with his bloccano.

2. Low credibility of the state. How do people argue? Today you tempt what-нибудь useful certification, "smart labels" and "virtual notary" strongly encourage "out of the shadows" tomorrow — "take a pencil" and rolled all particularly gullible "luxury tax". Charged and potentially also according to the "smart contract" — so that did not have a chance successfully to challenge that-либо in court. Is it possible? Yes, easily.

3. The risks of an impersonal justice, the problem of dispute resolution. One of the main advantages of the introduction of blockchain-технологий is the ability to reduce or eliminate the "human factor". But any algorithm is not insured from failures. Is not provided. Made a mistake, the money transferred to the wrong wallet or something. Potentially will still be situations when counterparties will be required to restore justice in the traditional way — judge-человечески, and not just in the framework of the soulless "smart contract". And how these issues will be addressed in systems without a live person — not yet clear.

But the victory of the blockchain on the art market in a historical perspective is almost inevitable.

And as predicted by skilled people, it will come at exactly the moment when the practical benefits from the new technology will be felt not organizations (galleries, auctions), and ordinary citizens. Remember how quickly and irrevocably entered our lives the same "Yandex. Taxi". And how much was initially unhappy! The old school taxi companies, drivers, accustomed to live by-старому, "fish" in airports and other. And what in the end? Progress won. Customers voted with their dollar has chose that it is cheaper and more convenient. And the market instantly regrouped under the new rules.

That art-рынком changes likely to occur in the same pattern. When buyers see in the blockchain real comfort and security, then under them to adjust all — and galleries, and auctions, and dealers. No options. Don't believe? Then remember how five years ago art-рынок similarly resisted the Internet. With snobbery and condemnation said that the online for sale of serious art is not suitable. Now it is striking to observe how the same"Sotbis-кристисы" in the race to develop their online services, and startups in the arts receive multi-million dollar funding.

And Baccano will be the same, you'll see.

the Sources are: fb.ru, rb.ru, youtube.com, ru.wikipedia.org, rbc.ru, investprofit.info, daily.afisha.ru, vestifinance.ru, dk.ru



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