The Blue Rider

1911-1914, Munich — Murnau

Parties: H. ARP, A. Bloch, J. Marriage, V. D. Burliuk, D. D. Burliuk, M. V. Verevkina, F. A. Hartmann, . S. Goncharov, R. Delaunay, A. Derain, E. Von Kahler, Campendonk, V. V. Kandinsky, P. Klee, Alfred Kubin, A. Macke, F. Marc, M. F. Larionov, F. Lenbach, A. Le Fauconnier, K. S. Malevich, G. Munter, Ж.-Б. Nestle, P. Picasso, A. Russo, L. Feininger, A. Schoenberg F. Pieces, H. I. Epstein, A. G. Jawlensky.

Exhibitions: 1-я (1911/1912, Munich) — 2-я (1912, Munich).

the Informal creative Association of avant-garde; - were members of the New art society Munich (V. V. Kandinsky, F. mark, later — A. G. Jawlensky, G. Munter, Alfred Kubin and others).

Founders — F. mark and V. V. Kandinsky — did not set out to create a traditional art society with the Charter and the Declaration, in which artists have teamed up with a direction or General purposes (exhibitions, promotion of art, sales of art works), what was NGOM. His task was to rendezvous and demonstrate the various movements in art, approval of the idea of synthesis of arts and equality of art forms.

in the Summer of 1911, while still a member NHOM, V. V. Kandinsky and F. mark discussed the idea of an independent almanac, the pages of which they could speak on behalf of the European artists-авангардистов. The name "Blue rider" appeared in the autumn of 1911 watercolor sketches V. V. Kandinsky the cover of the almanac. V. V. Kandinsky recalled: "We came up with the name "Blue rider" when I was sitting in a café in the garden Sindelsdorf; we both loved blue, Marc liked horses, I — riders. So the name came by itself" (Kunstblatt, 1930, No. 14, s. 59). V. V. Kandinsky and F. mark claimed the symbolic meaning of color and some musical coloration, assuming that each color corresponds to a certain sound. In particular, the blue color V. V. Kandinsky compared with the sound of the cello (thick, rich). He wrote: "the deeper the blue, the deeper it is calling the person into the infinite, awakens in him a longing for the pure and, finally, transcendent. The color of the sky".

In may 1912 the publisher of Reinhardt Piper in Munich the first issue of the almanac "the Blue rider", the cover of which ("St. George") was performed V. V. Kandinsky. Edition was released in three versions: 1) for General distribution (price 10 stamps; circulation of 17 000 copies; later — 1 of 200 copies)@the semicolon 2) the so-called "Deluxe edition" (50 stamps; 50 copies — each contained two painted and signed by artists woodcuts); 3) "Museum edition" (100 stamps; 10 copies included an original work by one of the participating artists).

Almanac was dedicated to the memory of the eminent art historian and Museum leader J. von Tschudi. In the advertising leaflet of F. mark said: "it is Declared hereby the first book, which is out of strict sequence must be followed by others, covers the latest picturesque movement in France, Germany and Russia and demonstrates their subtle connections with the art of Gothic and primitive Africa and the Great East, so expressive of folk art and children's creativity, particularly with modernmusical trends of Europe and new stage ideas of our time." Featured articles: V. V. Kandinsky: "the question of form", "On stage composition"; Mark F. "Spiritual treasures", "a"Wild" Germany", "2 paintings"; D. D. Burliuk Wild Russia";, F. A. Hartmann, "On anarchy in music"; A. Schoenberg, "the relationship to the text"; . I. Kulibina "Free music"; V. V. Rozanov "From the "Italian experience" and a number of other and more than 100 color and two-tone illustrations.

the Authors of the "Blue rider" is not just proclaimed in its pages the idea of a coming "epoch of great Spirituality", which will bring together all types of art and culture.

the Second number planned for publication, was not published.

Under the same name "the Blue rider" was held two exhibitions. The first took place at the end of 1911 (18 Dec @1 mdas Jan 1912) at the Moderne Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser in Munich. Was attended by 14 artists who were represented by 43 (paintings, including painting on glass). After the Munich exhibition, with some additions and modifications, was shown in Cologne, Berlin, Bremen, Hagen, Frankfurt-на-Майне, Hamburg, Budapest, Oslo, Helsinki, Trondheim and Gothenburg.

the Second exhibition under the title "Blue rider. Black and white", was organized in the spring of 1912 (12 Feb — April 2) in the Neue Kunst Hans Goltz in Munich@the semicolon it exhibited only drawings.

In 1914 from-за the outbreak of the First world war, in which V. V. Kandinsky, A. G. Jawlensky and M. V. Verevkina were forced to leave Germany, the almanac and the Association ceased to exist. Subsequently, V. V. Kandinsky wrote: "never really was Association "Blue rider" and no group, as is often wrongly described. Mark and I took what seemed right to us... not caring about any of the views and wishes".

Sources:

1. N. Avtonomova. B. Kandinsky and artistic life of Russia in the early 1910-х // Poetry and painting. The collection of papers in memory of N. I. Hardzhieva. M., 2000. P. 120-128.
2. D. V. Sarabianov, Avtonomova N. B. Wassily Kandinsky: the artist's way, artist and time. M., 1994.
3. The blue rider. Under the editorship of V. V. Kandinsky and F. Marc. M., 1996.
4. Tikhomirov. Expressionism (Artists of the "Blue rider") // Modernism: Analysis and criticism of the main directions. A collection of articles. M., 1973. S. 23-30.
5. Buchheim L.-G. Der Blaue Reiter und die "Neue Künstlervereinigung München". Feldafing, 1959.
6. Friedel H, Hoberg A. Der Blaue Reiter und das Neue Bild. Von der "Neuen Künstlervereinigung München" zum "Blauen Reiter". Ausstellungs-Katalog. The Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, München. München, 1999.

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