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1862–1945  



Пастернак, Леонид Осипович

Biography

Pasternak Leonid Osipovich

April 16, 1862 (Odessa) - May 31, 1945 (Oxford)

painter and graphic artist.

occurred from a wealthy Jewish family. Original art education in the Odessa School Drawing Society of Fine Arts (1879-1881), where he studied with A. Bauer. He graduated from school with a silver medal. In 1881 he entered the Medical Faculty of Moscow State University, in 1883 joined the law faculty, which already finishing in the Novorossiysk University in Odessa. At the same time continued arts education. In 1881-1882 attended the private studio of Professor MUZhViZ Sorokin, in 1882-1885 he studied in natural classroom Munich Academy of Arts and J. L. Geteriha Litsenmeyera (graduated with a gold medal) and the picturesque workshop (course did not finish).

In 1885-1886 served military service. From 1886 to 1889 he lived in Odessa. Since 1888 (in 1901) - permanent exhibitor TPHV. In 1889 he moved to Moscow. In the same year he married pianist RI Kaufman, had four children: Josephine, Lydia, Alexander (the future famous architect), Boris (poet).

Moscow went into "polenovsky circle, met with VD and ED Polenov, I. Levitan, Valentin Serov, AE Arkhipov, S. A. Vinogradov , MV Nesterova and others. Picture of the "News from the homeland", was exhibited at the 17 th exhibition of the Association of the Wanderers, got in his collection of P. Tretyakov. In late 1880 - early 1890's, gave private drawing lessons, taught classes in fine arts artist-architect O. Gunst. In 1889-1894 headed the school's own drawing. From 1894 (in 1921) taught at MUZhViZ (renamed after the Revolution in the Second State Free Art Studios, then - in VHUTEMAS), led the first full-scale, then the figure classes.

In 1892, became acquainted with Leo Tolstoy, often stayed at his home in Khamovniki (Moscow) and the estate of Yasnaya Polyana. He performed the graphic portraits of the writer and his family. Created illustrations for the novels "War and Peace" (1892) and "Resurrection" (1898-1899). Collaborated with the magazines "Mayak", "Bee", "Alarm," The Siege "," Light and shadow. " He worked as art editor of the actor ».

in 1894 for his film "On the eve of exams was awarded a second gold medal at the International Exhibition in Munich in 1900 for the illustrations for the novel by Tolstoy's" Resurrection "is marked by a small silver medal at the World Exhibition in Paris.

In 1900, visited Paris in 1904-1906 and 1912 he traveled to Italy and Germany, in 1907 went to Holland, Belgium, England.

in 1903 became one of the founding members of the Union of Russian Artists. In 1903-1905 took part in the exhibitions "World of Art". In 1907, was among the organizers of the association "Free aesthetics. In 1905 awarded the title of academician.

After the revolution he worked in the Commission for the Protection of works of art and antiquities at the Moscow Soviet. In 1921, together with his wife and two daughters moved to Berlin. In 1924 at the suggestion of a Parisian publisher AE Kogan went to the historical-ethnographic expedition to Palestine, which culminated in an extensive monograph with reproductions of drawings made there Pasternak. In 1927-1928 and 1932 Gallery V. Hartberg in Berlin held solo exhibitions of the artist.

Emigration was busy lithography, made a series of portraits of famous figures of culture. After coming to power in Germany's National Socialist Party Pasternak was forbidden to paint. The artist began in the Soviet embassy talks about returning to the USSR, but they were not successful. In 1938, after the death of his wife, he moved to his daughters in England. The last years of his life almost continuously lived in Oxford.

Pasternak Memorial Exhibition held in 1958 in the Pushkin Club in London in 1959 - at the Museum Eshmolian in Oxford. Retrospective of the artist's were organized in 1962 in Bristol (City Museum) and Munich (City Gallery), 1969, 1979, 2001 in Moscow (The State Tretyakov Gallery), 1975 - Dusseldorf and Basel, 1982 - Oxford (Museum of Modern Art) 1987 - Washington, DC.

Pasternak had a reputation as one of the best painters and portrait painters of his time. The master's hard to classify to a specific artistic direction. And although it is often called the Russian impressionist, this is more true in the manner of an artist than his method and style. Thus, pastels more inclined to Impressionism, while the ceremonial portraits reveal features of Art Nouveau.

Pasternak represented in many museum collections in Russia and abroad, including in the State Tretyakov Gallery, Pushkin Museum im. Pushkin State Russian Museum, the Museum d'Orsay in Paris, the Museum Eshmolian in Oxford.




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