The most expensive sculptures in the world. Rating
ARTinvestment.RU   16 ноября 2017

Argued that the sculpture is always cheaper than the picture... It is not. Three-dimensional works are also able to bring are just mind-blowing amount!

it is considered that the biggest deal in art-рынке is in selling the paintings. Usually the way it is, but every rule has exceptions. Three-dimensional works, including sculptures and installations, is also confident strike price records. Below is the list of most expensive sculptures for the most part relies on the check the auction sale, as it is usually accepted. But this time we made two exceptions, adding to the list platinum skull "For the love of God" the work of Damien Hirst and "the Three graces" by Antonio Canova. Let the transactions were not at auction, but nonetheless become public, and certainly not gone unnoticed by art-рынком.

Auction results include the buyer's Commission Buyer's Premium. For convenience, we translated them (and estimate) in U.S. dollars at the exchange rate on the date of the sale, and already these numbers determined the ranking. Like our other rankings, the selection was carried out according to the principle "single author — one job." Of course, sales in the tens of millions of dollars from Giacometti, Brancusi or, say, Koons had more than one, and we will try to mention the most important. At the same time, keeping every sculptor's only one place in the list, we were able to include far more names and interesting auction transactions.

1. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Pointing man. 1947. $141.7 per million

Alberto Giacometti — is the most highly valued (literally) classic of world sculpture. His withered, almost fleshless figures, symbolizing the alienation and loneliness of man in the modern world, consistently achieve high prices at auction. Some time Giacometti was even ahead of all the painters together: 3 February 2010 the sculpture "Walking man I" was sold for £65 million ($104.3 million). This, incidentally, was the world's first auction item has passed the threshold of $100 million.

More than five years later, the sculpture "man Pointing" 1947 reached new heights auction — hammer price including Commission came to $141.7 per million Is a record not only for Giacometti, but also for the entire market sculpture.

the Sculpture is "Pointing man" was conceived and executed Giacometti in 1947, just one night. As the sculptor told his biographer in a few months for the new-Йорке was set to open its first 15 years of creative activity solo exhibition. Time was running out, and one October night he fashioned the first plaster model. Since it was made six casts and one printed copy. Followed in January 1948, the exhibition "Pointing man" has occupied a Central place in the exhibition along with the "Running man" and "Standing woman." The exhibition has made furore, Giacometti suddenly became the star of the new-йоркской postwar art-сцены.

Today the sculpture "Pointing man" is in the collections of MOMA, Tate Modern, and two museums. The remaining three instances belong to private collections and collections of funds. The one instance that was put up for auction, presumably, the only hand-painted by Giacometti. In 1953-м itwas purchased at the gallery Pierre Matisse famous collectors Fred and Florence Olsen. Since 1970, the sculpture belonged to a private collection that was the first time in history put up for auction. As told the organizers, they offered the owner a guarantee, but he refused, saying that if the item remains unsold, he will keep it. "He might be a little upset that she actually bought", — said the representative of Christie's.

2. DAMIEN HIRST For the love of God. 2006. $100 million

Platinum skull, inlaid with diamonds, the work of Damien Hirst (Damien Hirst), formally on the auction is not sold, and therefore the rating should not be present. But to ignore the deal that had it at a public auction, would have taken 2-е place in the price ranking of the most expensive sculpture in the world, too, would be wrong. In spring 2007, Hirst decided to make the skull the most expensive work of living artists and put up for sale in the White Cube gallery with a price tag of £50 million ($100 million). But suddenly raided by the mortgage crisis in the US, and potential buyers decided to keep their millions to themselves. the Skull in platinum with diamonds eventually bought by a group of investors, which included Hirst himself and his Manager Frank Dunphy (Frank Dunphy). They decided that if for eight years, no one will be willing to purchase an item privately, it will go under the hammer. Meanwhile, the skull pleases the visitors of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.

the Results of the open auction of three-dimensional masterpieces by Hirst, of course, far from 100 million skull, bought in a private transaction, however, is very impressive. Take, for example, the installation "sleeping spring", which is a thin transparent locker, which are more than six thousand multi-colored pills. The work was bought by Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Тани, the Emir of Qatar, for $19,21 million at Sotheby's auction on 21 June 2007.

the Third work by Hirst, which we will mention here is the installation "Golden Taurus" — the most impressive of more than two hundred works, which was put up for personal auction of the artist "In my head I'll be fine forever" (Beautiful Inside My Head Forever). The evening auction, where the installation was sold for $18,66 million, took place on 15 September 2008. "The Golden calf" is a stuffed bull, placed in formaldehyde. Animal horns decorated with a Golden disk. Put stuffed animals in formaldehyde and give them a solemn, sometimes taken from the Bible names one more "signature" trick Hurst. It is for this work he had in 1995 he received the prestigious Turner Prize.

3. JEFF KOONS Rabbit. 1986. $91,075 million

the longer you watch auction career of Jeff Koons (1955), the more I am convinced that pop-арта nothing is impossible. You can admire sculptures of Koons in the form of toys from balloons, but you canbe considered kitsch and bad taste — your right. One thing is undeniable: installations by Jeff Koons are worth crazy money.

Jeff Koons began his journey to fame the most successful in the world of living artists back in 2007, when his giant metal installation "Hanging heart" was bought for $23.6 million at auction Sotheby's. Bought the work of representing Koons Gagosian gallery (in the press wrote that in the interests of the Ukrainian billionaire Viktor Pinchuk). The gallery has acquired not just the installation, and, in fact, a piece of jewelry. Let the work done and not made of gold (the raw material was stainless steel) and size it is clearly more conventional pendant (sculpture height of 2.7 m and weighs 1,600 kg), but has a similar purpose. For the production of compositions with heart, covered with ten layers of paint, had spent more than six and a half thousand hours. In the end, for the spectacular "decoration" paid huge money.

Next was the sale of "Flower from a balloon" purple for £12,92 million ($25.8 million) at auction in London Christie’s June 30, 2008. It is interesting that seven years earlier the previous owners of the Flower purchased for $1.1 million it is Easy to calculate that during this time, its market price has increased almost 25 times.

the Decline of art-рынке 2008-2009 gave skeptics a reason to pozloslovit that fashion Koons passed. But they were wrong: together with the art-рынком revived interest in the works of Koons. The successor of Andy Warhol on the throne of the king of pop-арта updated his personal record in November 2012 with the sale at Christie’s colored sculpture "Tulips" from the "Celebration" for $33.7 million including Commission.

But the "Tulips" were "flowers" in the literal and figurative sense. Just a year later, in November 2013, followed by the sale of sculptures in stainless steel "Dog of balloons (orange)": the hammer price amounted to as much as $58,4 million! A fabulous sum for a living artist. Work by a contemporary composer sold at a price of van Gogh or Picasso. That was already berries...

With this result, the Koons for a few years he began to reign at the top of the ranking of living artists. In November 2018, it briefly surpassed David Hockney (see the second line in our ranking). But just six months later, everything is back to normal: may 15, 2019 in new-Йорке at the auction of postwar and contemporary art Christie’s put up for sale a textbook for a Koons sculpture 1986 — silver "Rabbit" out of stainless steel, simulating a balloon like shape.

All these sculptures Koons created 3 jokes plus one printed copy. At the auction got a copy of the "Rabbit" number 2 — from the collection of iconic publisher of CY Newhouse, co-owner of the publishing house Conde Nast (magazines Vogue, Vanity Fair, Glamour, GQ, etc.). Silver "Rabbit" was bought by the "father of glamour" si Newhouse in 1992, impressive by the standards of those years the amount of — $ 1 million. After 27 years in the fight 10 bidder the hammer price sculpture 80-кратно exceeded the previous sales price. And given the Buyer a fee’s Premium the final result was a record for all living artists $ 91,075 million

4. $71 million Constantin Brancusi. Dainty girl (Portrait of Nancy Cunard). The idea 1928. Casting1932

the Poor peasant's son, who came on foot from Romania to Paris, where he was destined to become a pioneer of modern avant-garde sculpture, — so in a nutshell, you can present one of the greatest sculptors of the twentieth century, Constantin Brancusi (in Paris, he began to call in the French manner Brancusi). Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), who came to Paris in 1904 and lived in this city most of his life, never ashamed of his low origin, and even, on the contrary, was proud of him and strongly supported the legend of himself: there were in the traditional dress of the Romanian peasant, even at the official receptions, and his workshop on the outskirts of Paris turned into a kind of Romanian houses with hand-carved furniture and a fireplace, in which the sculptor's an iron pin roasted meat.

the talent of the sculptor woke up in Constantine, when he worked as a messenger in the Romanian town of Craiova. In his free time, Brancusi began to carve figures from wood and one day, as legend has it, made from scrap materials the violin so vpechatlilo local industrialist, that he gave his training in art school Craiova. Then a talented peasant, studied at the School of fine arts in Bucharest, and in Paris not very long worked in Rodin's Studio where gone with the words "Nothing will grow in the shade of large trees." But even this short experience with Rodin certainly had influence on the formation of Brancusi-скульптора — is one of the first significant works was called, by analogy with rodenovskim masterpiece, "the Kiss" (1907-1908). Only it was a very different Kiss: Brancusi's gone from realism in the direction of simplified, geometrizovannym forms; figure lovers carved from a single piece of stone, almost square, with schematic dig of hair, eyes, and lips.

the Kiss Brancusi many counts the history of modern abstract sculpture. Although the author never thought his work abstract. Perfecting your favorite shape of stone, marble, bronze, wood (Brancusi repeatedly returning to his series "the Kiss", "head of the muses", "Bird in space", "Endless column", etc.), the sculptor sought to literally display the appearance of an object or a person, an animal, but to convey his idea, inner essence. Through the polished forms of Brancusi wanted to Express some fundamental, hidden nature of things. The work of the Romanian sculptor represent a wonderful fusion of ancient, ancient art, filled with myths and legends with contemporary avant-garde ideas.

the Most expensive to date, the sculpture of Constantin Brancusi — bronze "Dainty girl (Portrait of Nancy Cunard)" (plan 1928; casting 1932). At the evening auction of impressionist and modern may 15, 2018 this work was purchased for $71 million including Commission. Nancy Cunard — writer, political activist and one of the favorite muses of artists, poets and writers of 1920-х, including TristanTzara, Ernest Hemingway, man ray, Louis Aragon, James Joyce, and others. Nancy Cunard were familiar with Constantin Brancusi, been to his Studio but never specifically didn't pose for him. That Brancusi created a sculpture that bears her name, she found out many years later. The first version of the work entitled "La jeune fille sophistiquée ( Portrait de Nancy Cunard)" was performed Brancusi wood in 1925-1927 In 1928, he wanted to do a portrait of Nancy Cunard in bronze. In 1932 he Brancusi cast her in plaster form in a single instance, and carefully polished. In generalized, semi-abstract forms the sculptor portrayed on a thin neck head Nancy with the hair gathered at the nape into a beam of complex shape. Perhaps the form of hair refers to the style of Cunard twist strands from a person. In one Brancusi sculpture, combining straight lines and feminine curves, smooth and at the same time, the broken, twisted form, would convey a contradictory beauty of one of the main muses of the "roaring twenties". And this is a Romanian genius, of course, failed.

5. AMEDEO MODIGLIANI Head. 1911-1912. $70.7 million

"Head" Modigliani — messenger of the era, which is the innovation in the field is a key in the history of art. Deliberately "primitive" but at the same time elegant, this sculpture serves as an excellent illustration of the huge impact that had on the modernist art of Africa. Amedeo Modigliani was very serious about sculpture. A contemporary remembers that he loved to do sculpture almost more than the picture, and would only by them if he had the money for the appropriate materials. Modigliani was a supporter of the sculpture, carved from a solid piece of stone; casting plaster forms he did not recognize. In finding the sculptor's skills he was assisted by Constantin Brancusi. During the creation of a series of sculptures of the "Head" he was close with Anna Akhmatova, and in these statues, the experts see her features.

Original sculptures of Amedeo Modigliani extremely rare at auction (albeit at a French auction for tens of thousands of euros are often cast after the artist's death in bronze instances, but, as we know, Modigliani himself has worked exclusively in stone). To date, there are only 27 sculptures of the artist, and of these not more than ten remain in private hands. In previous times one of the "Heads" Modigliani appeared at auction in 2010 in Paris and was sold for almost $53 million At auction Sotheby's November 4, 2014, hit the "Head", Dating from 1911-1912 years. The result of the struggle of three candidates the hammer price soared to $70.7 million

6. Unknown author. Lioness Guennola. OK. 3000-2800 BC $57.2 million

This tiny, with a height of just over eight (!) inches, the sculpture was created around 5 thousand years ago in ancient Mesopotamia. Figure found in Iraq near Baghdad. Hard to believe, but she is the same agewheel, money and the world's first big cities! Baby lioness spent almost 60 years in the collection of Alastair Bradley Martin (Alastair Bradley Martin), while in 2007 it decided to put up for auction. At Sotheby's sculpture exceeded estimeyt three times and became the most expensive piece of ancient art in history.

7. HENRI MATISSE Nude from behind IV. 1930, cast in 1978. $48,8 million

Another sculptural work, sold for a large sum in 2010, — monumental relief of Matisse's "Nude from behind IV". As "Walking man I" Giacometti, the work is not unique, moreover (unlike Giacometti sculpture), cast after the artist's death. As it turned out, it doesn't matter if we are talking about masterpiece level, other copies of which are on display in the Tate gallery, the Pompidou Center and MOMA. All these sculptures were cast twelve, in private hands today are just two. Before the auction Christie's November 3, neither of these giants on the auctions was not present.

8. HENRY MOORE Reclining figure. Festival. 1951. $33.1 million

Created by the Council on fine arts to the British festival of 1951, a sculpture by Henry Moore "Reclining figure. Festival" in February, 2012-го set a record for his sculptures — £19.1 million ($30.1 million). This sale could be called a real breakthrough. In-первых estimate was exceeded three times (prior to the sale at Christie's festival "Reclining figure" works Moore went a maximum of $7-8 million). And-вторых, with this record, Moore immediately became the second in the three most expensive British artists of the XX century (on the first place — Francis bacon@the semicolon on the third — Lusien Freud).

Just Henry Moore made five casts and one printed copy "Reclining figure" for the British festival. Four years later at Christie's auction on 30 June 2016, the result of casting another "Reclining figure" by $3 million surpassed the previous record price including Buyer's Premium was $33.1 million (estimate $20-26,7 million).

Henry Moore (1898-1986) was highly appreciated during the life of the sculptor. Original price peak was the mark of $1.2 million achieved in 1982. Having survived the recession of 1990-х, the market works by Moore in 2000-х began to recover, especially to actively rise in price of classic modernist sculpture began in 2007. And, as we have seen for updating records, the real growth in the market of works of British sculptor, it seems, is just beginning.

9. PAUL GAUGUIN Teresa. OK. 1902-1903. $30,96 million

At Christie's auction in November 2015, the sculpture of Paul Gauguin's "Thérèse" ("Teresa") of red tropicalwood thespesia was sold for a record for the artist's sculptures $30,96 million (estimate of $18-25 million). "Theresa" were almost three times more expensive than the "Young Tahitian" ($11.28 mn) — its predecessor at the top of hojnowski sculpture. Meanwhile, both "Teresa" ratings before the price of painting Gauguin still can't reach: in the winter of 2015 was the news that a painting brush Gauguin's "When will you marry" has sold in a private transaction for $300 million.

the History of "Teresa" is very entertaining. In 1901 Paul Gauguin in search of the next heaven on earth has landed on the island of Hiva-Оа of the Marquesas archipelago. After a long Tahitian period, he wanted to settle in the wilderness where the power of colonial France feel less and less life. However, it turned out that all vacant plots of land on the island are managed by the Catholic Church. Gauguin, in spite of his anticlerical views, during what-то time regularly attended mass, than convinced the head of the Catholic mission father Martin in their reliability. But it was just the artist to get the land, he immediately left the visits to the Church and on their land, built a house, called "Maison du Jouir" — "House of pleasure". A house with walls of bamboo and a roof of palm leaves was decorated with fine things hand hojnowski work — furniture, kitchenware and a minimum of eight sculptures. "Theresa" — one of only two surviving sculptures of the "House of pleasure". The artist led in this house is not a chaste life, than turned father Martin in his worst enemy. Last one I did Gauguin the subject of their Church sermons. The artist said that carved wood two sculptures and placed them outside his house. It was father Martin in the image of the devil (the sculpture "Père Paillard" — "Father of fornication" — is now kept in the collection of the National gallery of art, Washington) and a local girl Theresa. On the island there were rumors (which love to believe Gauguin) that these two were lovers. The enraged priest tried to remove the sculptures under the pretext of unpaid taxes Gauguin. However, when the confiscated works were put up for auction, the artist himself and bought and put front of the "House of pleasure". There they stood until the death of Gauguin in 1903. Later, the story of their split, but "Thérèse" and "Père Paillard" as a sculptural pair of recognized and recognized by artists and critics of the avant-garde one of the pinnacles of modernist sculpture.

10. WILLEM DE KOONING Seeker shellfish. 1972. $29,28 million

a Bronze sculpture of Willem de Kooning's "clam Finder" at Christie's on November 12 2014 was sold for a record for sculpture author $29.28 million De Kooning studied sculpture from 1969 to 1974 and created during this time is not more than 25 three-dimensional works. The sculpture "Seeker of shellfish" is one of the best. There are only ten of her casts, three of which — more. Other copies are stored, in particular, at the Centre Pompidou, Stedelijk-музее, the Whitney Museum.

Presents for auction a bronze sculpture — firstthe author's casting. For forty years she "guarded" the entrance to the Studio of De Kooning in the springs (new-Йорк). In the figure of the seeker of shellfish there are a lot from the artist born in the seaside town of Rotterdam. Never left the family collection since its creation the sculpture "Seeker of molluscs" was put up for auction granddaughter of Willem De Kooning.

11. PABLO PICASSO head of a woman (Dora Maar). 1941. $29.2 million dollars

it is Impossible to imagine a list of "most-самых" at art-рынке without Pablo Picasso (Pablo Picasso). He, in particular, takes the second place in the ranking of Top-10 world artists ARTinvestment.RU. The sculpture is the artist's lover Dora Maar (Dora Maar) with chubby cheeks was cast in two copies. In a record year for art-рынка 2007, work became the most expensive sculpture in the world, but it is the proud title she wore a short time: in less than a month "Dora Maar" pushed from the top step of the podium, "Lioness Guennola".

12. Unknown author. Artemis with a DOE. I century BC — I century BC $28.6 million

the Sculpture is remarkably well preserved. At Sotheby's auction for it broke the real "war of rates": the first two potential buyers "exhausted" at $12 million, then the game involved a third, and the price of the sculpture for ten minutes up to $28 million, exceeding the upper estimeyt four times. So "Artemis with deer" became the most expensive piece of ancient art.

13. LOUISE BOURGEOIS Spider. 1997. $28,16 million

First female-скульптор in our ranking — is, of course, Louise Bourgeois. The greatest figure in the history of art, Louise Bourgeois lived almost a hundred years and during his long life he tried his hand in almost all the major artistic movements of the twentieth century — cubism, futurism, surrealism, constructivism and abstractionism. Bourgeois unique of his versatility. Her sculptures, often so different in appearance and material, however, have a shared meaning. A key theme of her work — childhood memories and experienced at a young age, moral trauma, including-за cheating father's mother.

One of the favorite images in the works of Bourgeois — spiders. The author does not suffer from arachnophobia, as many might seem. For the sculptor spider, or rather, the spider was a special symbol — a symbol of the mother. As he talked about his mother herself is Bourgeois, "she was the same intelligent, patient, clean, considerate and obliging, like a spider. And she knew how to protect myself." Besides, she had her own tapestry salon, so the comparison with the weaver-паучихой seems even more capacious. A giant bronze spider sculpture by Louise Bourgeoisone after another hit record on auction sites. The last record holder was 7-метровая "Spider", which was sold at auction Christie's November 10, 2015 for $28.16 million

14. ADRIAN DE VRIES. Bacchic figure holding a globe. 1626. $27.9 million

the Bronze statues of famous Dutch sculptor of the seventeenth century Adriaen de Vries, until recently, in the country of his birth was not. Blame the creative biography of the artist, who worked mainly away from the homeland — for example, in Prague and Augsburg. Very popular during the life of the sculptor after the death was forgotten, and his works were scattered around the world. Well-deserved recognition is beginning to return to him with the end of the XIX century, when Sweden was published a list of his bronze sculptures@the semicolon in the twentieth century a number of researchers again drew the attention of art lovers at the "Dutch Michelangelo." In 1989, his sculpture "the Dancing Faun" was sold three times more expensive estimeyta — for £6,82 million ($11 million). For as much as 25 years, it was a record price for works of Adrian de Vries, which is not surprising, since De Vries sculptures rarely come up for auction. The last such event occurred in December 2014. Bronze "Bacchic figure holding a globe" was purchased at Christie's auction for $27.9 million, the Sculpture was ripped out in the fight at the three competitors in the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum, which provided material support in the purchase of numerous foundations and private sponsors. Finally, the Netherlands had the Adriaen de Vries.

About the story of this sculpture there are many hypotheses. On the one hand, mythological character, there are clear signs of Bacchus (Dionysus) — a wreath of vine leaves in the hair, vine-covered tree at his feet and a whistle. On the other hand, the character holds aloft the globe, which causes direct Association with the Atlas or Hercules. This means that either Adrian de Vries resorted to some original interpretation of myth and joined a few scenes, or the original intent of the sculpture was changed after the death of the author ("Bacchic figure" created in the last year of life of the author). The sculpture could remain unfinished, without an accompanying Bacchus attribute like a barrel of wine, and the person, in whose possession it fell, could add a barrel instead of the more noble from his point of view, the globe. Whatever it was, the first evidence of sculpture (with the globe) was found on lithography 1700 with a view of the estate, where the sculpture and found after more than 300 years (2010).

15. ALEXANDER CALDER Flying fish. 1967. $25.9 million

Alexander Calder is known as the inventor of mobiles — kinetic sculptures of light metal plates and rods, driven by the wind or by an electric motor. Create mobiles of Calder engaged since the early 1930-хuntil his death in 1976.

Calder Mobiles — standing, hanging, fastened on the brackets or vertical supports. The most expensive Mobil sculptor — hanging design "Flying fish" in 1957. The work exceeded the preliminary estimate of $9-12 million twice — after six minutes of intense auction dispute she's got a new owner for $25,925 million Is 7 million more than the previous record bar in $18.6 million, taken with a mobile "Power Lily" in 2012.

the Mobile "Flying fish" was auctioned from the collection of Chicago philanthropists Lindy and Edwin Bergman. Although most of the mobiles of Calder emphasized abstract and have nothing to do with real-life imagery, the motif of the fish was an exception to his sculptor turned repeatedly since 1930-х. Fish — one of the oldest religious symbols, and not only in Christianity (in Buddhism, for example, fish is considered to be one of the eight symbols of fortune). For Calder's fish represented the smooth and graceful movement — all what he wanted to achieve in his kinetic sculptures. For centuries, sculpture was@static ndashто, Alexander Calder moved her to another dimension, giving it the ability to move. In mobile "Flying fish" Calder perfectly combines monumental, in the spirit of traditional sculpture, the body of the fish and light construction of the tail of more than a dozen elements. At the slightest breath of wind, the plates of the mobile are set in motion, and it seems like the fish are swimming through the air.

16. Unknown author. Bust Of Antinoos. The Roman Empire, the era of Hadrian. 130-138 ad $23,826 million

the Next largest antique piece from the point of view of the market price is the Roman marble bust of handsome antinoos II century ad This sculpture portrait of the beloved of the Emperor Hadrian were found in the North of Israel, in the Golan heights, near the city of Banias. The inscription on the plinth of the bust says that work is a dedication "to the hero Antinous" by M. Lucius Flaccus. Obviously, Marcus Lucius Flaccus was a man influential, since he dared to put your name next to the name of the deified antinoos. Despite a broken nose, a marble bust of a fuse in soul from the five lovers of antiquity. They traded for him eleven minutes, and in the end, the bust went to a European collector for $23,826 million.

17. DAVID SMITH Cubi XXVIII. 1965. $23,816 million

Want to learn how to look like a sculpture in the style of abstract expressionism? Look at the work of David Smith (David Smith). This American artist has glorified sculptures made of steel, the most famous of which resemble abstract landscapes. However, at the end of his life, Smith moved away from the expressionism and began to create sculptures of geometric shapes, which are called the Cubi.

the Product Cubi XXVIII was the last in the series, shortly after its inception, the artist died in a car accident. Sculpture has long been innew-йоркском the Guggenheim Museum until it was decided to put up for auction. On 9 November 2005 at new-йоркском Sotheby's Cubi XXVIII became the most expensive work of post-war artist. I bought her all the same Larry Gagosian, but not for his gallery, and on behalf of a collector Eli Brody (Eli Broad).

18. YVES KLEIN untitled. Suspended. SE 168 (Sculptures éponges 168). 1959. $22 million

What experiments are neither held by the French artist Yves Klein to forever enter the history of art, — were selling space gold ingots, which are then thrown into the Seine, has been creating paintings using the flame thrower or rain drops, wrote "living brushes", whose role was performed by naked models, patented his favorite shade of blue. And Klein was used as material for his works of marine sponges. Sometimes artists applied their paint, but Klein went on — it was made of sponge reliefs and sculptures.

he Came to this by accident. "Working on paintings in his Studio, I sometimes used sponges. They are very quick chenille. One day I noticed how beautiful the blue sponge, and at once the instrument has become for me the source material. I was attracted by this unique ability of sponges to soak up any liquid. With the help of sponges — living matter —, I could create portraits of those who looked at my rhythmic, who, after the contemplation of blue in my work was filled with the same sensuality that my sponge", — explained Yves Klein in 1958.

One of the most famous, repeatedly published and frequently exhibited sculptures in Klein's series of Sculptures éponges (sculptures out of sponges) under the number 168 at Sotheby's on may 14, 2013 was sold for a record $22 million Is growing from the stone Foundation of the "flower" of the sponges, soaked kleinowski blue pigment International Klein Blue (IKB). The most expensive sculpture of the Klein Atul not the most expensive of his work at all. Bas Klein sponges are much more expensive here, for the record belongs to pink "Le Rose du bleu," sold in 2012 for $36.7 million

19. AUGUSTE RODIN Eternal spring. 1901-1903. $Of 20.41 million

On the evening auction of impressionist and modern Sotheby's auction house, may 9, 2016 marble sculpture of Auguste Rodin "Éternel printemps" ("the Eternal spring", 1901-1903) was sold for a record for sculptor $of 20.41 million (estimate: $8-12 million). This version of "Eternal spring" Rodin is the fifth of the ten known sculptures of this story in marble. Other versions of "Eternal spring" are now in the Hermitage (1906), the Metropolitan Museum of art (1906-1907), the Museum of fine arts, Budapest (1901), etc. Plan and the first performance of "Eternal spring" refers to the mid-1880-х, when the sculptor was in love with his pupil Camille Claudel.

20. Unknown author. Leda and the Swan. Roman Empire, circa II century ad $19,1million

Antique marble statue of "Leda and the Swan" — Roman copy of a lost Greek original statues attributed to the sculptor Timoteo. Before the Sotheby's auction this copy was not known neither to experts nor the public. About it there was no information in any of the scholarly work on the Roman marble sculpture. All because of the end of XVIII century it is quiet-мирно stood in the manor of USK-Холл, owned by the Marquis Zetland. This copy — is one of the few with a preserved head, and overall her condition is good. Therefore, the increase of the auction price six times against the upper estimate is quite understandable.

21. EDGAR DEGAS Little fourteen year old dancer. Model 1879-1881, cast 1922. $18,82 million

the Sculpture of the young dancer of the Paris ballet Marie van Getem — is the only three-dimensional work, which was exhibited during the life of Degas. It was at the impressionist exhibition of 1881. Then sculpted in wax statue of a ballerina in a muslin tutu, Pointe shoes and even with real hair was considered too graphic. Many resented her "degenerate" features, like "criminal types" Lombroso, author of the then popular theories about developmental delays, which are reflected in the appearance of criminals. The sculpture was exhibited in a glass case that was new and relied too ambiguous. Only after the death of Degas, the public and experts have estimated the sculpture's dignity. Relatives of the master in 1922, made 28 bronze copies of wax "Dancers", leaving them, however, a muslin skirt and hair ribbons. Of these 28 castings in large part has long been in museums. In private hands there are about a dozen copies. The one that became a record at auction Sotheby's in 2009, was put up by British businessman John Madejski, who, in turn, she got in 2004 for £4.5 million ($8.1 million). Five years later, the ballerina sculpture bought for £13.3 million ($18,82 million), i.e. almost three times more expensive. It is still the most expensive Degas sculpture. Another copy of "the Little dancer" was exhibited at Christie's in 2011, but estimate $25-35 million, according to-видимому, deterred buyers.

22. MAURIZIO CATTELAN Him. 1901 - 1903. $Of 20.41 million

may 8, 2016 at Christie's "Doomed to failure" in Rockefeller Plaza in a serious fight, with excess of estimate were purchased scandalous sculpture by Italian sculptor Maurizio Cattelan "Him", depicting the kneeling figure of Hitler. The Western audience the sculpture "Him" is well known. Her brothers in the seriesexhibited more than 10 times in leading museums, including the Centre Pompidou and the Museum of Solomon Guggenheim. A list of publications about this work is difficult to fit on the page.

I Wonder what "Him" — is drawing work. There are only four instances of — plus three artist's proof. The latter was sold at Christie's. As you can see, the buyer "aunicornist" did not bother — modern collectors have long been seriously taking limited edition items.

a strange Thing. The strange name. Character — risky. Like all Cattelan. What do you mean Him? "His" or "His infernal majesty"? It is clear that it definitely is not about the glorification of the image of the Fuhrer. In this work, Hitler appears as a rather helpless, pitiful state. And absurd — is the incarnation of Satan is made the size of a child, dressed like a student and is on his knees with a humble expression on his face. For Cattelan this image — invitation to reflect on the nature of absolute evil and the way of deliverance from fear. In may 2017 this sculpture will participate in the exhibition "Loss" (75 years of the Babi Yar tragedy) of the PinchukArtCentre in the Ukrainian.

23. Unknown author (the Master Schuster). The reclining female figure. The Cycladic Islands. OK. 2400 BC $of 16.88 million

the Cyclades Archipelago of over 200 Islands scattered in the Aegean sea, brought to life one of the most interesting archaeological cultures of the bronze age. Simplified and at the same time, graceful figures were created by the inhabitants of the Cyclades in the third — II millennia BC and is believed to have influenced the development of modernist sculpture. Small marble figures are, as a rule, rich in Cycladic graves. The names of their authors it is impossible to establish, however some General stylistic characteristics, scientists distinguish with high probability the work packages of a master. Such groups of figures, attributed to the master are called by the name of the Museum or, say, the name of the owner of one of the statues. For example, 12 works attributed to the Schuster master (named after the first owner of the most famous figures of Marion Schuster). This marble figurine is the wizard Schuster, who lived about 2400 BC, became a sensation of the auction Christie's 9 December 2010. Well-preserved 30-сантиметровая figurine of a pregnant woman lying down on stomach with hands (that figure is, and should not, scientists have made a conclusion on the position of her feet) tripled the estimate and got a new owner for $16.88 million

24. TAKASHI MURAKAMI My lonesome cowboy. 1998. $15.16 million

the Japanese Takashi Murakami works as a painter, sculptor, designer and animator. Murakami wanted to base his work that-то really Japanese, Western and without any other borrowing. As a student, he was fascinated by traditional Japanese painting nihonga, later onthe place it's the popular art of anime and manga. Thus was born the psychedelic Mr DOB, patterns of smiling flowers and bright, shiny sculpture made of fiberglass, seemed to have just descended from the pages of Japanese comics. Some believe the art of Murakami fast-фудом and the epitome of vulgarity, the other is called Japanese artist Andy Warhol — and in the ranks of the latter a lot of very rich people. In 2008, the blonde animessage sculpture "My lone cowboy" (the name borrowed from the same film by Andy Warhol) bought at auction Sotheby's for $15.16 million

25. DONALD Judd untitled (DSS 42). 1963. $14,16 million

"Want to see them simple", — talked about his sculpture in an interview 1960-х years minimalist Donald Judd (1928-1994). The minimalist movement in America was then in its infancy, and Judd was one of its first representatives. The dominance of abstract expressionism sculptor wanted to contrast the simple forms. Our accustomed to more complex structures the eye the objects of Donald Judd may seem too simple. But that's what I wanted to achieve author — purity of color and form. His most expensive to date sculpture-инсталляция — "untitled (DSS 42)" — is a panel of red wooden strips with metal curving edges black. Bought the work in November 2013 at Christie's for $14,16 million while the estimate of $10-15 million the Previous record selling Judd, 2012 was exactly 4 million less — $10,14 million for the work "untitled (Bernstein 89-24)".

26. Unknown author. Barberini Venus. The end of the I — the middle of the II century ad $11,64 million dollars

Barberini Venus (or Venus Jenkins) — is a Roman copy of a lost Greek original of the type Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles. It is also believed related to Venus de Medici from the Uffizi gallery. The fate of sculpture is closely linked with the history of collecting in the British Empire of the eighteenth century. In that period the noble English lords, who made a trip around the world, traditionally went to Italy in search of ancient artifacts in General and sculpture in particular. Excellent artwork boxes were exported to England where they joined British collection. The flip side of this process was the diffusion of many remarkable Italian collections — for example, the collection of the Palazzo Barberini in Rome; in the cellars of the Palace, and were found Venus. In 1760-х marble goddess fell into the hands of Thomas Jenkins, known at the time the errand is close to the Pope. Now we would call such a person art-дилером. Jenkins gave the sculpture for restoration, during which, according to one version, the previously headless statue was picked up by the brain from a-то other statues.Even if the head of Venus, Barberini and alien, it looks authentic. The statue after the restoration was so beautiful that 26-летний the Englishman William Waddel could not resist it and bought the Venus for a huge amount. And even though the price of the sculpture varies greatly in different sources, it is known that this was the largest amount paid for an ancient piece of art in the eighteenth century in General.

27. ANTONIO CANOVA the Three graces. 1814-1817. $11.5 million

Technically, and this sculpture should not be here, because it was bought in a private transaction. However, we've done for her except in-первых, that Canova, in-вторых, history of transactions is very significant, in-третьих, the price is that places, if not in ranking, then certainly in the enumeration work deserves.

the Sculptural group "the Three graces", Antonio Canova exists in two versions. The first variant is exhibited in the Hermitage. It was made for the Empress Josephine, wife of Napoleon, circa 1814. The English Duke of Bedford, by visiting Canova's Roman Studio, wanted to buy the sculpture for his estate, but was denied. In 1814, Josephine died and her heirs to sell the sculpture also refused. From the son of the Empress, eugène de Beauharnais, she moved then to grandson to Maximilian, who in turn, took the masterpiece of Canova in Russia. The Duke of Bedford ordered Canova's second version of "the Three graces". The sculptor carved is practically the same Euphrosyne, Aglaia and Thalia, and in the years 1816-1817 the three graces arrived at the estate of Bedford Woburn-Эбби. There is a sculpture group was placed in a special pavilion alongside other neo-classical statues. Although this pavilion in Woburn-Эбби is now considered a national treasure of Britain and the idea is not subject to demolition located in the Canova statue in 1990, was sold to a mysterious investment company. Sculpture of Woburn-Эбби removed and tried to take abroad. The buyer was ready to make Los-анджелесский the Getty Museum. However, as is often the case in Britain with the cultural objects of particular importance, the export licence had not been issued. After a long legal battle Canova sculpture from the estate of the Dukes of Bedford eventually bought the joint efforts of the Victoria and albert Museum and the National gallery of Scotland for £7.6 million ($11.5 million). Since then, the "Three graces" about once in three years, moving from one Museum to another.

28. BRUCE NAUMAN Helpless Henry Moore. 1967. $9,9 million

American Bruce Nauman (1941), the Grand prize winner 48-й Venice Biennale (1999), long went to his record. Nauman began his career in the sixties. Experts called it, along with Andy Warhol and Joseph Beuys, one of the most influential figures in the art of the second half of the twentieth century. However, intense intellectuality, and the absolute redecorating somework, obviously, let to the rapid recognition and success among the General public. Nauman often experimenting with language, revealing unexpected meanings of familiar phrases. Words dominate many of his works, including the neon pseudonymised and panels. Sam Naumann calls himself a sculptor, although over the past forty years he dabbled in various genres — sculpture, photography, video art, performances, chart. In the early nineties, Larry Gagosian said prophetic words: "the Real value of the works of Naumann we have yet to realize". And so it happened: on 17 may 2001, at Christie's, the work of Bruce Nauman 1967 "Helpless Henry Moore (back view)" (Henry Moore Bound to Fail (Backview)) set a new record in the segment of post-war art. Made from plaster and wax cast of a tied behind back hands Nauman was sold for $9.9 million in the collection of the French magnate Francois Pinault (according to others, the American Phyllis Wattis). Estimate of work amounted to only $2-3 million, so the result was surprising.

the Work of "Helpless Henry Moore" — one of a series of polemical works by Nauman on the role of Henry Moore in the history of twentieth century art. Young authors, which was in the shade of a recognized master, then attacked him with ardent criticism. The sculpture of Bruce Nauman — response to this criticism and at the same time a meditation on the theme of creativity. The work's title becomes a pun, as it connects the two meanings of the English word bound — "bound" (literally) and "doomed to a certain fate." Besides Naumann offers in this work another paradox: "rear view" declared in the title of the work, actually — front view and the only view in which the work can be watched.

29. ARISTIDE MAILLOL's the River. 1938-1943. $8.32 million

Aristide Maillol — author, the appearance of which in our ranking we are happy. One of the greatest sculptors of the first half of the twentieth century, did not betray the traditions of realism in the age of being interested in abstract forms, proclaimed the cult of the healthy body in contrast to the mannered, cabin forms. There was even the concept of "mihalevski women" — beautiful, natural, maybe a little heavy, but very harmonious. The main Muse Maillol was an immigrant Dina Vierny (nee Dina Yakovlevna of Uibinder), with whom they met when the sculptor was 70, and Back — only 15. Dina posed for Maillol's most famous of his works — allegorical sculpture "Air" and "River" recent work "Harmony" and others. After the sculptor's death in 1944, and what Dina Vierny was Maillol's main heir, has at its disposal all of his collection, his gallery business. Dina Vierny died in 2009, and four years later, her children decided to exhibit at the Paris auction Artcurial 2 Dec 2013 several works by Maillol from the collection. Preparatory sketch to pastel to sculpture "River" sold for a record for graphics Maillol 791 thousand dollars. And the "River" (lead casting 1970) was sold for a record for the sculptor €6,18 million ($8.37 million), twice the estimate of €2-3 million(Us$2.7–4 million). The record can be considered quite natural, given a concrete provenance of the sculpture.

30. Unknown author. Bust of a Roman Consul Germanicus. OK. 37-45 ad $8,146 million

Another ancient artifact in our list of most expensive sculptures — marble bust of the Roman politician and military commander Germanicus (full name Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudian), the adopted son of Emperor Tiberius and father of the Emperor Caligula. The unknown sculptor carved a young and successful Roman commander, distinguished for his campaigns in Germany and poisoned at the age of just 33 years. There are about ten similar busts of Germanicus. The most famous of them are in the Louvre (bust, found in the Cordoba) and the British Museum (from basalt). The bust was auctioned at Sotheby's in December 2012, comes from the collection of the Dukes of Elgin and their ancestral estate of Broomhall in Scotland. Bust of Germanicus bought in 1798 or 1799 in Rome, Secretary of the British Ambassador in Constantinople 7-го of the Duke of Elgin Thomas Bruce. Antique marble bust was intended to decorate the diplomatic residence. Subsequently, for some years a bust of Germanicus settled in Bramhall. It is not surprising that a work with such a solid provenance fought up to $8 million.

31. CY TWOMBLY untitled (Rome). 1987. $7.7 million

CY Twombly — is one of the most expensive and the most misunderstood of modern artists. Critics in awe of his works, while the vast majority of the public is not ready to call "it" the art. However, his canvases are covered with scrapes, like children's doodles or drawings of primitive man, in the world of art-рынке cost millions of dollars. And now in the list of the most expensive of his works appeared, and sculpture. The work "untitled (Rome)" at Christie's auction on 15 may 2013 were sold for $7.7 million including Commission. Sculpture cast in bronze, but the basis for it was the assemblage of pieces of wood, the seed of the poppy boxes, thin wood-подпорки and other objects. Behind the apparent simplicity of the critics have read a lot of meanings. This homage to the "Walking man" Giacometti (if you look closely, in thin sticks you can guess anthropomorphic forms), and the reference to antiquity (poppy flowers appear in many ancient Greek myths), and the line escaped in three-dimensional space. The art of CY Twombly is not for everyone, but important for the market that in the number of "not all" are millionaires.

32. JULIO GONZÁLEZ's Mask "Shadow and light". Circa 1930. $Million of 7.45

Classic modernist sculpture Julio Gonzales was referred to the abstractionists and the Surrealists, however, he himself has disowned such definitions. He called his welded iron sculptures simply as "drawings in space". Gonzalez created his whimsical images of industrial wastes — tin scraps, machine parts, etc. Interestingly, the native of Barcelona Gonzalez for 50 years went to his vocation as a sculptor. He was born into a family of famous jewellers, what-то time went on the footsteps of his father, but dreamed of becoming a painter. In 1902 he left Spain for Paris and the artistic community of Montmartre. Here he became friends with Picasso (according to the latter, Gonzales "manipulate the metal like butter"). However, the first metal sculptures, he began to create in the late 1920-х years. The most expensive to date, the work of Julio Gonzalez — mask "Shadow and light" — began in 1930. Sotheby's auction was exhibited original work of iron, which was made 8 casting (plus 5 copyright) in bronze.

33. MARINO MARINI Horseman. 1951. Casting 1955. $7,15 million

the Italian sculptor Marino Marini (1901-1980) everyone will know mainly magnificent in its archaic simplicity the sculptures of riders. The artist, who during his lifetime achieved recognition and all sorts of awards (including first prize at the Venice Biennale of 1952), there is a remarkable sculptural portraits, and Nudes, and works on paper and canvas, but the theme of horse and rider from Marini had a special relationship. As he spoke, a huge role in his work played a familiarity with the culture of the Etruscans: "That's why my art is based on themes from the past, such as the relationship of horse and rider, not on modern subjects like the relationship between man and machines." But if the first riders Marino Marini firmly and confidently stayed on the horse, like ancient heroes, with the passage of time from-под the hands of an increasingly out images of horses, ready to throw its riders. The dethroned-седла rider reflects the author's idea about the crisis of human nature and the withering away of the treasures of the past. One such sculpture casting 1955 more than 50 years spent in the collection of the Swedish trade Union. Her auction result 2010 was a record for Marino Marini: sculpture "Rider" earned $7.15 million

34. URS FISCHER untitled (Lamp "Bear"). 2005-2006. $6.8 million

and finally — yellow bear URS Fischer (1973). This is perhaps the most thorough and significant work of Fisher when-либо to appear at auction. The Swiss artist is best known for his ephemeral works made of wax (large sculptures-свечи, guttering as the combustion wick) or bread (Fisher as-то built the house of bread and placed it parrots, gradually krasivih and ate his home). A "Lamp "Bear"" it seems soft plush toy is actually made of bronze. This seven-meter sculpture weighing about 20tons of dedicated to favorite and familiar childhood things. Fisher connects everyday objects that are difficult to represent are merged together. But the impression this bear with burning in the forehead with a lamp produces festive. Just remember the "balloons" of Koons. After sitting in the square in front of the new-йоркским a Sotheby's auction in yellow bear went to a certain private collection in exchange for $6.8 million

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