The management of the collection. History and typology of Assembly
ARTinvestment.RU   23 апреля 2020

In continuation of the heading we tell about the main types of collections, their cause and who controls them

The terms "collector" and "collection" in which-то extent some of the oldest concepts on the Ground. From the course of history we know that the two main occupations of the ancient people was hunting and gathering. In other words, the search objects (for subsequent systematization by helpful and dangerous) and the pursuit of a purpose. After thousands of years nothing has changed, except that the interest of contemporary art collectors to gathering and hunting driven aesthetic taste and artistic motifs. Historians, philosophers and psychologists trying to classify the phenomenon of collecting to the category of the known concepts: today you can hear about the residual role of the collection (a kind of sublimation of creativity), and that the passion of collecting and systematization inherent in us genetically. In this collecting a lot like art to our days nobody can give its origin and development suitable for all explanation.

collecting as a systematization of knowledge about a certain group of subjects kept pace with the epochs of the most important discoveries. The first collection of objects we find in the countries of the ancient East, Ancient Greece and Rome. With the advent of Christianity the largest collection was formed from the parishes of the left in the form of gifts items. Geographical discoveries in the age of navigation established in Europe, the fashion collections of exotic animals and plants: private zoos and arboretums were the lot of the Royal families and the rich nobility. Professional Association of collectors appeared in the XVIII century — then were in fashion luxury goods (later they will be called Antiques), watches and books. On the formation of collections of works of art heavily influenced the emergence of the art-дилеров in the second half of the XIX century and the shift in the attention of auction houses artistic values (in the first 150 years from the moment it appears even Sotheby's and Christie's was selling everything that had demand, indiscriminately). In the XX century the art was completely formed in the modern sense, and today we are dealing with three main types of collections: Museum, corporate and private.

1. Museum collection

Today there are about 35 thousand museums, a third of them — about 12 thousand — own approximately 100 million works of art (the best works from the collections of 2.5 thousand museums are and [email protected] ndashрежиме at Arts & Culture). In the continuous exposure the average is 5-10% of the exhibits (in the major museums of 30-40 %. — AI.), the rest are Museum collections, which raise from the archive for thematic exhibitions. The largest Museum in the world — new-Йоркский Metropolitan Museum of Art (1870) — has a collection of more than 200 thousand items of art, along with drawings and lithographs (they are in the possession of the Museum more than half a million). Few know, but museums also sell your items (up to 100 thousand per year globally) — generally, the auction displays works from the vaults that do not fit into the concept of the Museum. The proceeds usually go to the acquisition of new exhibits. In countries where the development of legislation onpatronage, the Museum's collections consist primarily of donated by private individuals works. For example, the collection of the art museums in the United States on average composed of 80% of such items. Institute of private museums usually developed in countries where businessmen — founders of the Museum get additional state and location of parties, — for example, in China and other countries in South-Восточной Asia. Simultaneously with the appearance of public museums in the mid-eighteenth century for the care of Museum collections was introduced the position of custodian, which in the XX century finally transformed into ideologically-активную the position of curator.

2. Corporate collection

With the advent of major companies in the XX century began the era of corporate collections. The main reasons were two:

— passion of the owner who places in the interior of a private collection, while saving on storage;

— to raise the status and loyalty of the target audience of the company through an appeal to art.

among the leaders in quality and artistic values of the collected works of @Microsoft mdas (computer technology) and Progressive (leader of auto insurance in the U.S. market). The collection comprises more than 5 thousand and 8 thousand works of high level, respectively. However, the largest corporate collection owned by the global banks: UBS (more than 30 thousand items), Deutsche Bank (68 million), Bank of America (25 million), JP Morgan (30 thousand). of Course, that private collecting banks do not stop and maintain interest in the art and among its clients through programs of art-банкинга or public partnership projects. So, UBS is a long-standing sponsor of the contemporary art fair Art Basel, Deutsche Bank patron of the fair, Frieze, new-йоркское Department of TEFAF has recently secured financial support from Bank of America. In addition, banks understand that the private collection increasing the capitalization of the financial structure, and often support the projects of artists whose works are in the collection: art grows in value, leaving the Bank walls. Sometimes news about the "sale" of the Bank's own collections do not reflect its actual strategy: in the beginning of 2020 Deutsche Bank announced the elimination of part of the artwork. In practice this meant something else: more than 90 % of the works in the collection Bank account for graphics and drawing. Therefore, having sold the most expensive paintings, the Bank simultaneously did two things: leveled own economic situation and increased curatorial integrity, and with it has increased and for the remainder of the meeting. For the management of private collections of banks, as a rule, form special departments and only occasionally use the services of private companies.

3. Private collection

In the hands of private collectors are often works which are the envy of certain museums. Simultaneously with us the lives of over 1 million art collectors, including family foundations. Those whose collections are more than $10 million, according to estimates by Deloitte, today there are more than 50 thousand For the largest collectors of art — part of the business: Bernard Arnault — owner of the LVMH Empire and Artprice (and in the past the owner of the auction house Phillips), françois Pinault, in addition to the brands Yves Saint Laurent and Gucci, owns Christie's, Larry Gagosian, Jay Jopling — toppingart-дилеры. Many use collectibles as a necessary "social cushion" for successful public business — such as Stephen Cohen, a former hedge Fund Manager SAC Capital Advisors. About the successes and failures of his company on the financial market can be judged by high-profile purchases at auction: caught in the scandal and at the risk of losing investors, he made a major purchase, thereby showing stability and returning market confidence (for example, in the midst of conflict with us regulator SEC in 2014, Cohen had acquired the sculpture of Alberto Giacometti's "Chariot" for $101 million). The most striking of the younger generation of collectors — Japanese billionaire Yusaku of Maezawa known purchase the most expensive work of Jean-Мишеля by Basquiat for $110 million, also became fascinated with art after build your business-империи (clothing, music media, and online-технологии).

Who can not do without professional support in the management of the meeting, so that private collectors. Management can exercise as a management company (leading to several collections), and hired professionals — from the service sector art-рынка (auction houses, galleries, art-дилеры) or "loner", who devoted his life to the only collection. As a rule, the latter have either art, or financial education, but an indispensable experience, connections and understanding of the market. After all, managing a collection not only need to collect it, but to increase in price, creating the highest possible liquidity. In other words, to turn into a financial instrument that will be able at any moment to support the collector material.

the following material under heading "Management collection," we'll talk about the rules of collection development.

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