Айвазовский И.К.
Шишкин И.И.
Маковский А.В.
Маковский В.Е.
Кончаловский П.П.
Фальк Р.Р.
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Нестеров М.В.
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Бенуа А.Н.
Немухин В.Н.
Серов В.А.
Зверев А.Т.
Саврасов А.К.

Artist of the week: Sonia Delaunay
ARTinvestment.RU   15 июня 2020

History, pricing and marketing indicators outstanding artist of the orbit of Russian art, who founded orphism and made a great contribution to the development of ar-деко Sony (Sarah ilinichny) Delaunay-Терк (née stern)

Years of life: 1885-1979

Direction: modernism

Type of art: a painting, drawing, sculpture, design, decorative-прикладное art

the First ever artist to be awarded a lifetime exhibition at the Louvre, the Chevalier of the Legion of honour Sonya, nee Sarah Delaunay was born on 14 November 1885 in Gradizhsk, Poltava region, or in Odessa. Sources differ in stating the place of birth of the artist, as in the first years of a girl's life is her family — father, an engineer nail factory Eliya (Elijah) and stern mother, Hannah stern (nee Turk), — what-то time lived in Odessa.

In 1890 in the family of five year old Sarah had an accident — father died; and mother, not being able to provide for your daughter, given her upbringing in a family brother — successful St.-петербургского lawyer Henry T. Turk and his wife Anna. The new family Sarah began to call the Dormouse. And when talking about the official adoption your only option girl names was the name of Sofya (Sonia) Turk. Mother Hannah stern did not allow the brother's family to adopt her niece, but Sarah stern began to call themselves Sonia Terk.

Elementary education Sonya received at St.-Петербурге. Noting the success of girls in mathematics, teachers predicted her future associated with the Sciences, however, the teacher of drawing drew the attention of the parent Sony on its success in drawing and was advised to give his daughter in art school.

So, in 1903, Sonia Terk was among the pupils of the artist Ludwig Schmidt-Рейтера at the art Academy in Karlsruhe. Biographers of the artist noted that her family would be enough to identify the girl in a prestigious Academy in Munich, but the choice fell on Karlsruhe, as our neighborhood was full of distant relatives Tarkov, which could support 18-летней Sonya. Legend has it that the fate of an aspiring artist determined the case: once in the hands of Sonja came upon a book about the impressionist painters "by Manet and his circle" of Julius Meier-Грефе — and she was shocked: "Who now need an old painting?! I want to go to the place where the birth of a new art, where the work of Manet, Monet, Renoir, van Gogh, Gauguin".

In 1905, she becomes a student of the Paris Academy "La Palette" in Montparnasse. The study did not last long: Sonia was disappointed by the academic approach to learning and more often than in the Studio, it can be seen in art galleries, in the company of Marshal and artists and surrounded by the modern art. Literary-художественном the salon of the Baroness etingen in the late 1900-х — early 1910-х years, Sonia met with many representatives of the artistic life of Paris at that time — B. Sankaram, G. Apollinaire, A. Ozenfant, D. de Segonzac, R. Delaunay. Among her friends were evensome Russian revolutionaries who are far from politics Sonia Terk considered "funny". Such acquaintance could not get past parents concerned about the future of his daughter and besides paying her life in Paris, they insisted that Sonia settled down: got married, or returned home to St-Петербург.

to please my parents and not give them a reason to take her away from Paris, in 1908, Sonia Terk fictitiously married a German art-критика and gallerist Wilhelm Ude. Ude, specializing in avant-garde painting, instilled in her a taste for the new [email protected] semicolon in his gallery Notre-Dame-des-Champs and held her first solo exhibition. By the way, relations with parents, the marriage did not improve: the biographers report that the wedding was attended by only the bride's parents and partner of the bridegroom. The family was, in the language of the time, scandelasian: not on a wedding for his daughter was counting on wealthy St.-петербургский a lawyer, so, returning to St-Петербург, the parents discontinued financial support of his daughter and resumed it in 1910 when Sonia had Already divorced and married Robert Delaunay.

Marriage with Delaunay not only gave Sonia Terk new name, but also determined her future life.

With the first years of marriage, Sonia Delaunay-Терк (the name she signed to the mid 1920-х years) and Robert Delaunay together developed the theory of simultanism (simultaneity) in painting. To apply the theoretical development in practice, Sonya tried in 1911, decorated with their own hand-made blanket for her year-old son of Charles abstract geometric pattern. By 1912 wife of Delone has finally formulated the theory of simultanism, which became a separate direction of [email protected] semicolon in the same 1912-м the poet Guillaume Apollinaire called this direction ahisma, likening the impact of new painting to the music of Orpheus, who by the sound of his lyre could move stones, to calm the waves, to enchant animals and plants.

Orphism — direction in abstract painting, whose task was concurrent (simultaneous) transmission of color contrast and rhythm with the help of local recurring forms.

By the mid-1910-х years of age Sonia Delaunay moved from writing still lifes and landscapes to geometric abstractions. And by 1920-м has changed not only the style of the artist — her creative Arsenal replenished with new techniques and materials. Since 1911-го she experimented with applique, collage techniques, made sketches for fabrics, developed the so-called "simultaneous dresses". In 1913, she, together with the poet and novelist Blaise Santarem invented the first simultaneous book — poem-картину of 445 lines of "Prose about the TRANS-Siberian Express and little Jeanne French", issued by the Paris publishing house "the new warehouse" edition of 150 copies. 1914-го or 1915-го (sources differ) Sonia and Robert Delaunay lived in Spain and Portugal, where he became acquainted with Sergei Diaghilev and his entourage — Stravinsky, Massine, Nijinsky, etc. In 1918 the wife of Delone worked on the design of the ballet "Cleopatra" staged by Mikhail Fokin: Sonia designed costumes and Robert — scenery. And later, returning to Paris in 1920-м, the artist continued to make theatrical performances and books.

However more and more of her time and work took design and fashion. After the revolution, the parents of Sonia had lost the ability to support her financially, and the production and sale of clothing brought in a good income, so in 1918-м in Madrid Sonia opened a boutique Casa OPA to sell their designer things, but in the early 1920-х in Paris made sketches of fabrics for the silk factories in Lyon. Along the way, and fashion design gave the artist a wonderful opportunity to experiment with application techniques and apply the principles of simultaneity, i.e..

In 1924, a small Parisian workshop by Sonia Delaunay has turned into a couture Atelier simultanée, where he exhibited models of clothes, production of costumes, drawings, fabrics, interiors sketches, projects, registration of cars etc. Atelier lasted until 1933 and brought the artist fame as well as recognition as one of the founders ar-деко, a new direction in design. By the 1930s-м years the Delaunay family engaged in the decoration neon is public space, and in 1937-м for the interior design of the French pavilion at the world exhibition in Paris, Sonia Delaunay was awarded a gold medal.

despite the diversity of art forms, materials, techniques unchanged in the works of the artist remained committed to geometric abstraction, which in 1930-е years gradually got more and more stern features. Crisp lines and contrast of color transitions remain iconic features of the art of Sonia Delaunay to the late works — smooth color transitions and graphic appear in a large late abstract series of "Rhythm and color."

Public work of Sonia Delaunay was also associated with the development and maintenance of abstract art: in 1931, we see her among the founders of the avant-garde Association "Abstraction — Creation", and in 1939-м family, Delaunay opened avant-garde art salon "New reality".

After her husband's death in 1941, Sonia engaged in preserving and promoting his artistic heritage, including with the help of numerous exhibitions and interviews. In 1963, 78-летняя Sonia Delaunay agreed to speak with journalist Vouge Jacques Damas. This conversation later turned into a close friendship, despite 45-летнюю the age difference. Damas has written numerous articles about the work of Sonia Delaunay, helped to organize the exhibition. Largely through the efforts of Damas to promote the artist's work in 1964 at the Louvre, was a personal exhibition of Sonia Delaunay. She became the first woman in history to be awarded this honor during his lifetime.

he Died Sonia Delaunay in 1979.

According to the database Artfacts, in the last 100 years of the work of Sonia Delaunay took part in 287 37 group and solo exhibitions, as well as at least 46 art fairs. The West actively traded works of the artist such gallery,Galerie Ludorff (düsseldorf), Crane Kalman Gallery (London), Galerie Pierre-Alain Challier (Paris), La Caja Negra (Madrid), Galerie Proarta (Zurich).

Delaunay Works are in many leading Museum collections, including the new-Йоркском the Museum of modern art MoMA, Tate Britain in London, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, the Louvre branch in Abu-Даби, Pushkin Museum im. A. S. Pushkin and other.

Financial indicators

the three most expensive works of Sonia Delaunay is part of the painting, sold in a fairly wide period of time — from 2002 to 2017 — on foreign auctions. "Philomena" (1907) showed the third highest result of $960 798 at Christie's London in 2010, the second result was also recorded at Christie's, but Paris: in 2017, was sold to work "Electric prisms" (1913) for $1 857 644. Selling the most expensive work of the artist — "Market at Minho" for $4 344 920 — took place in Paris at auction of a modest auction house Calmels Cohen in 2002 (later, in 2007, the French auction house was bought by Sotheby's for undisclosed amount).

According to the database ARTinvestment.RU, at the time of publication of the work of the artist 1905 times were brought to auction, of which the lottery products — 1250 works, graphics — 505 works painting — 47 works, carpet and tapestry @24 mdas works, ceramics, porcelain @21 mdas work, mixed media — 16 works, books @14 mdas works, decorative-прикладное art — 3 work, collage @3 mdas working, fabric — 2 work. The average price of sold works — $19.6 thousand, the Total capitalization on the public market — $28.77 million Has a balance of sold and unsold works to 438 1467 (77 % of all trading completed the sale).

table 1. Sale during the auction

the Period of sales, years. the lots, pieces the Results for lots
Sold, is Not sold, PCs.
PCs %
1986-2005 217 192 88 25
2006-2015 1079 833 77 246
2016-2020 609 442 73 167

table 2. Sales by country the auction

Country auctions the lots, pieces the Results for lots
Sold, is Not sold, PCs.
PCs %
France 813 596 73 217
USA 356 318 89 38
UK 312 276 88 36
Germany 123 77 63 46
Switzerland 80 60 75 20
Belgium 45 35 78 10
Denmark 36 28 78 8
Sweden 25 18 72 7
Monaco 25 0 0 25
Netherlands 23 18 78 5
Italy 22 14 64 8
Austria 16 10 63 6
Israel 10 7 70 3
Canada 5 2 40 3
Portugal 5 2 40 3
Spain 4 1 25 3
Finland 3 3 100 0
Russia 2 2 100 0

table 3. Re-sale

№ p/p Name Purchase Selling tenure, years auction house Profit, $ CAGR, %
Year Price, $ Year Price, $
1 Untitled 2018 2,361 2019 994 1 Bruun Rasmussen, Copenhagen -1,367 -57,9
2 Cathedral 2010 3,120 2011 1,800 1 Swann Galleries, new-Йорк -1,320 -42,3
3 Les Pâques Russes II 2014 2,432 2014 1,536 0 Swann Galleries, new-Йорк -896 -36,8
4 Alphabet 2009 1,126 2010 976 1 Amsterdam Auctioneers Glerum, Amsterdam -150 -13,3
5 Rythme couleur 2019 12,563 2020 11,368 1 Sotheby's, London -1,195 -9,5
6 Rythmes-Couleurs 2013 7,500 2017 5,000 4 Phillips, new-Йорк -2,500 -8,3
7 Sketch dresses 2009 6,566 2018 2,190 9 private collection, Moscow -4,376 -7,4
8 Dress synchronous 2011 4,063 2017 3,250 6 Heritage Auction, Dallas -813 -3,3
9 Floral motif on a red background. The sketch fabric 2011 3,107 2018 2,983 7 private collection, Moscow -124 -0,6
10 Woman 2002 33,460 2013 42,212 11 Tajan, Paris 8,752 2,4
11 Market at Minho 1 1988 372,000 2011 689,795 23 Tajan, Paris 317,795 3,7
12 Color rhythms 2009 43,277 2013 50,000 4 Sotheby's new-Йорк 6,723 3,9
13 homage to Stravinsky 2006 1,554 2018 2,500 12 Bonhams, new-Йорк 946 5,1
14 Geometric composition 2011 2,118 2015 2,571 4 Koller Auctions, Zurich 453 5,3
15 rhythm of Color, Paris 1992 23,774 2012 62,730 20 Christie's, London 38,956 8,2
16 Color rhythms 2007 1,527 2009 1,840 2 Ketterer Kunst, Munich 313 10,2
17 Portuguese still life 1996 90,000 2015 274,000 19 Sotheby's, new-Йорк 184,000 10,8
18 the Diagonal composition 2009 15,300 2019 34,936 10 Sotheby's, London 19,636 12,8
19 Costumes, sketches 2011 12,516 2012 14,177 1 ArtCurial, Paris 1,661 13,3
20 Color rhythms — № 234 2009 9,924 2010 11,390 1 Dorotheum, Vienna 1,466 14,8
21 Rythme couleur 2019 14,041 2020 16,240 1 Sotheby's, London 2,199 15,7
22 Colored rhythms № 615 2009 272,097 2014 513,390 5 Sotheby's, London 241,293 17,7
23 Withoutnames 2015 949 2016 1,185 1 Artcurial, Paris 236 24,9
24 rhythm of Color, Paris 2010 62,730 2016 158,723 6 Christie's, Paris 95,993 25,5
25 Cinema 2013 1,409 2013 1,918 0 Cornette de Saint Cyr, Paris 509 36,1
26 Composition. Colour rhythm 2013 33,201 2016 76,540 3 Sotheby's, London 43,339 43,5
27 Simultaneous dress, red-черное 2009 7,503 2011 16,064 2 Aguttes, Paris 8,561 57,1
28 Noir et blanc 2014 972 2015 1,905 1 Artcurial, Paris 933 96,0
29 Composition 2009 709 2009 1,408 0 Amsterdam Auctioneers Glerum, Amsterdam 699 98,6
30 Simultaneous dress, green and blue cells 2009 4,690 2011 14,565 2 Aguttes, Paris 9,875 105,3
31 untitled 2011 970 2011 2,011 0 Amsterdam Auctioneers Glerum, Amsterdam 1,041 107,3
32 Alphabet 2009 355 2009 1,126 0 Amsterdam Auctioneers Glerum, Amsterdam 771 217,2
33 Rhythm composition 2009 435 2010 1,533 1 Stockholms Auktionsverk, Stockholm 1,098 252,4

the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) — 30.6 per cent. It should be noted that negative values of CAGR are mostly working in the lower price range (average of $3 million), while the positive growth showed a higher value (an average of $83 thousand). The average estimate of all sold works Delaunay was exceeded by 176 % — in other words, the sellers received an average amount of 1.8 times more than the initial estimation of the auction house. The upper limit of the estimate is recorded at 59 % of sales and has a positive trend over time. According to the index Artist's ARTIMX? average cost of graphic works of the artist from 2019 and 2020 increased by 35 %.

From the market point of view, Sonia Delaunay — is a typical representative artist of the "Russian circle", where emigration to foreign creative environment helped initially to get to the international auction of impressionist and modern, past the main holder of the authors of "Russian weeks". Here — and the number of auction sales, including re, and the attention of foreign galleries and Museum collections to top-уровня. At the same time, Delaunay — artist, yet underestimated by the market in terms of pricing (in contrast to the same Tamara de Lempicka), with a good prospect of growth of cost of the work. Notes that of the 1905 auction of the precedents Russia accounts for only two (both successful). This suggests that any appearance of quality works of French Ukrainian-еврейского origin in the domestic market is regarded by customers, akin to the event.

On the current 334-м AI Auction the artist's book Les illuminations (Illumination) Arthur Rimbaud. 1973.

Sources: artinvestment.ru, portal-kultura.ru, lechaim.ru, rusavangard.ru

Attention! All materials of the site and database of auction results ARTinvestment.RU, including illustrated reference information about the works sold at auctions, are intended for use exclusively for informational, scientific, educational and cultural purposes in accordance with Art. 1274 of the Civil Code. Use for commercial purposes or in violation of the rules established by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation is not allowed. ARTinvestment.RU is not responsible for the content of materials submitted by third parties. In case of violation of the rights of third parties, the site administration reserves the right to remove them from the site and from the database on the basis of an application from an authorized body.

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