- Ф.Бурхардт, Астрахань 13 июня 93 г
- Victor Kazarin. Selected publications and photo
- Помогите с авторством картины
- Икона Св.Лука, первая четверть 18 го века, оценка
- Chulovich Victor. Help with attribution.
- Chulovich Victor. Help with attribution.
- Оценка иконы
- Полотно Икона Св.Николай Чудотворец Можайский
- Icon of Jesus Christ Pantocrator 19th century lackey
- Неизвестная икона, прошу атрибуции
Living artists: top sales
ARTinvestment.RU 16 ноября 2017
The ranking of the most expensive works of living artists — is design, talking about the role and place of the artist in art history is much less than on the age and health of the fortress
- JEFF KOONS a Dog of balloons (Orange). 1994-2000. $58,4 million
- GERHARD RICHTER an Abstract painting. 1986. $46.3 million
- TSUI JOJO "Great snowy mountains". 2013. $39,577 million
- JASPER JOHNS Flag. 1983. $36 million
- ED RUSHEY Smash. 1963. Of $30.4 million
- CHRISTOPHER WOOL untitled (RIOT). 1990. $29,93 million
- PETER DOIG Rosedale. 1991. $28,81 million
- ZENG FANZHI the last supper. 2001. $23.3 million
- ROBERT RYMAN the Bridge. 1980. $20.6 million
- DAMIEN HIRST Sleepy spring. 2002. $19.2 million
- MAURIZIO CATTELAN Him. 2001. $17,19 million
- MARK GROTJAN untitled (S III Released to France Face 43.14). 2011. $16.8 million
- TAKASHI MURAKAMI, My lonesome cowboy. $ 15.16 million
- JIN SHAN Tajik bride. 1983. $13,89 million
- FRANK STELLA the Transition of Delaware. 1961. $13,69 million
- JOHN CURRIN "Cute and simple". 1999. $12,007 million
- DAVID HOCKNEY "the Forest of Woldgate 24, 25 and 26 October 2006". 2006. $11.7 million
- BRICE MARDEN The Attended. 1996-1999. $10,917 million
- ZHANG Xiaogang Eternal love. $10.2 million
- BRUCE NAUMAN Helpless Henry Moore. 1967. $9.9 million
Rules for compiling our rankings is simple: in-первых, are taken into account only deals with works by living authors; in-вторых, only takes into account public auction sale; and-третьих, follows the rule of "one artist — one work" (if the rating works two records belong to Jones, it remains only the most expensive, and the rest are not taken into account). The ranking is in terms of dollars (at the exchange rate at the date of sale).
the longer the watch auction career Jeff Koons (1955), the more I am convinced that pop-арта nothing is impossible. You can admire sculptures of Koons in the form of toys such as balloons, and can be considered kitsch and bad taste — your right. One thing is undeniable: installations by Jeff Koons are worth crazy money. The current record is already $58,4 million. So many have paid for a sculpture in stainless steel "Dog of balloons (Orange)" in auction Christie's November 12, 2013. With this sale Jeff Koons with a large margin soared to first place in the ranking of living artists. Even the patriarchs of postwar art as Gerhard Richter and Jasper Johns, to the Koons is not enough "what the-то" $20-30 million.
Jeff Koons began his journey to fame the most successful in the world of living artists in the distant 2007 when his giant metal installation "Hanging heart" was purchased in $23.6 million at the auction of Sotheby's. Bought the work of representing Koons Gagosian gallery (in the press wrote that in the interests of the Ukrainian billionaire Viktor Pinchuk). The gallery has acquired not just the installation, and, in fact, a piece of jewelry. Let the work done and not made of gold (the raw material was stainless steel) and size it is clearly more conventional pendant (sculpture height of 2.7 m and weighs 1,600 kg), but has a similar purpose. Onthe production of compositions with heart, covered with ten layers of paint, had spent more than six and a half thousand hours. In the end, for the spectacular "decoration" paid huge money.
Next was the sale of "Flower from a balloon" purple £12,92 million ($25.8 million) at the London auction Christie's 30 June 2008. It is interesting that seven years earlier the previous owners of the Flower purchased for $1.1 million it is Easy to calculate that during this time, its market price has increased almost 25 times.
the Decline of art-рынке 2008-2009 gave skeptics a reason to pozloslovit that fashion Koons passed. But they were wrong: together with the art-рынком revived interest in the works of Koons. The successor of Andy Warhol on the throne of the king of pop-арта updated his personal record in November 2012 the sale at Christie's colorful sculptures "Tulips" the same series of "Celebration" $33.7 million with the Commission. And as we now see, "Tulips" was "flowers" in the literal and figurative sense. Followed just a year selling orange "Dog of balloons" has surpassed the record of "Tulips" almost $25 million! It's berries...
Incidentally, the creation of sculpture-рекордсменки Jeff Koons was inspired by Andy Warhol. Imitating the iconic Warhol series of five portraits of Marilyn Monroe in different colors, Koons sculpted in different colours, five sculptures of "Dogs of balloons". Orange "Dog" was one of the first in this series@the semicolon at the end of 1990-х it has acquired a reputable collector Peter Brant. The other four Dogs of other colors are also dispersed on the distinguished collections — Steve Cohen, Dakis Ioannou, françois Pinault and Eli broad.
Living classic Gerhard Richter (1932) takes the second place in our ranking. The German artist was a leader among living colleagues, have not yet struck 58-миллионный record of Jeff Koons. But hardly this circumstance can shake the already armored authority Richter at art-рынке. At the end of 2012-го annual turnover of the auction of the German painter second only to those for Andy Warhol and Pablo Picasso.
for many years there were no signs of success, which struck Richter now. For decades, the artist occupied a modest place in the market of contemporary art does not aspire to fame. We can say that fame overtook him. Choice consider buying a new-йоркским Museum MOMA in 1995, a series of works Richter's "18 October 1977". American Museum paid $3 million for the 15 paintings in shades of gray and soon began thinking about holding a full retrospective of German artist. A Grand exhibition was opened six years later, in 2001-м, and since then interest in the work of Richter grew by leaps and bounds. 2004-го and 2008, prices for his paintings have tripled. In 2010, Richter's work has already brought in $76,9 million in 2011, according to Artnet, the works of Richter at auctions in the amount of earned $200 million, and in 2012-м (according to Artprice) — $262,7 million — more than that of any other living artist.
while, for example, Jasper Johns a runaway success at the auction accompanied by basically only the early works, to works by Richter such a sharp separation is not typical: the demand is as strong at things from different creative periods, since in his career Richter was a great set. Over the last sixty years, the artist tried himself in almost all traditional genres of painting — portrait, landscape, Marina, Nude, still life, and, of course, abstraction.
History of auction records, Richter began with a series of still lifes "Candles". 27 photo-realistic images of candles in the early 1980-х, in the period of their writing, only cost 15 thousand German marks ($5 800) per operation. But "Spark" is still nobody bought their first exhibition at the gallery max Hetzler in Stuttgart. Then the subject was called old-fashioned; today, "Candles" is considered works at all times. And they cost millions of dollars.
In February 2008, "Candle", written in 1983, was suddenly bought for £of 7.97 million ($16 million). This personal record lasted for three and a half years. Then in October 2011 another "Candle" (1982) was sold at Christie's for £of 10.46 million ($16,48 million). This record of Gerhard Richter for the first time entered the top three most successful living artists, taking his place behind Jasper Johns and Jeff Koons.
Then began the triumphant March of "Abstract art" Richter. Such works the artist paints in a unique author's technique: he puts on a light background is the mixture of simple colors, and then using a long scraper the size of a car bumper smearing them on the canvas. This gives intricate color transitions, spots and stripes. Examining the surface of his "Abstract paintings" like excavations: they are traces of a variety of the patterns discernible through the tears of many colorful layers.
9 Nov 2011 at the auction of postwar and contemporary art Sotheby's large-scale "Abstract painting (849-3)" 1997, went under the hammer for $20.8 million (£13.2 million). And six months later, on may 8, 2012 at the auction of postwar and contemporary art at Christie's in new-Йорке "Abstract painting (798-3)" 1993, went for a record $21.8 million (including Commission). Five months — again record: "Abstract painting (809-4)" from the collection of rock-музыканта Eric Clapton Oct 12, 2012 at Sotheby's auction in London was sold for £21.3 million ($34.2 million). The barrier of 30 million was taken by Richter with such ease, as if we are not talking about modern paintings and the masterpieces, which for a hundred years — no less. Although in the case of Richter it seems that the inclusion in the Pantheon of "great" has already occurred in the life of the artist. The price of the work of the Germans continues to grow.
the Next record belonged to Richter's photorealistic work — landscape "Cathedral square, Milan (Domplatz, Mailand)" in 1968. The work was sold for 37,1 million at Sotheby's 14 may 2013. View of beautiful square was painted by a German artist in 1968 at the request of Siemens Electro, especially for the Milan office of the company. At the time of its writing it was the largest figurative work of Richter (measuring nearly three by three meters).
the Record "Cathedral square" lasted almost two years, while on February 10, 2015-го it killed "Abstractthe painting" (1986): auction price reached £30,389 million ($46.3 million). Put up for auction Sotheby's "Abstract painting" in the size of 300,5 x 250,5 cm — is one of the first major works of Richter in his special author's technique of scraping the layers of paint. The last time in 1999, this "Abstract painting" was bought at auction for $607 million (this year and up to the current sale of work was exhibited at the Museum Ludwig in Cologne). At auction 10 Feb 2015, an American client of the auction in steps of £2 million reached a hammer price of $46.3 million i.e. since 1999 the work has grown more than 76 times!
for a Long time, we are not too closely followed developments in the Chinese art-рынке, not wanting to overload our readers an excessive amount of information about "our" art. With the exception of dissident AI Weiwei, not as expensive even as the resonance of the artist, Chinese authors seemed too numerous and far from us to understand what they have there in the market. But the statistics, as they say, serious lady, and if we're talking about the most successful living authors in the world, without the story about the outstanding representatives of contemporary-арта China still can not do.
let's Start with the Chinese artist Tsui Jojo (Cui Ruzhuo). The artist was born in 1944 in Beijing, from 1981 to 1996 he lived in the United States. After returning to China he began teaching in the National Academy of arts. Tsui Jojo reinterprets the traditional Chinese style of painting with ink and creates huge paintings-свитки who love to give as gifts to each other Chinese businessmen and officials. In the West it is known very little, although must be many people remember history with a scroll for $3.7 million, which was mistakenly thrown out, taking the garbage cleaners of the Hong Kong hotel. So —, it was the scroll that is Tsui Jojo.
Tsui Jojo already over 70, and his work the market is booming. Over 60 works by this artist crossed the bar in $1 million However, the success of his works have so far only Chinese auctions. Records Tsui Jojo really impress. First, it "Landscape in snow" at the auction of Poly Auction in Hong Kong 7 April 2014 reached a hammer price of 184 million Hong Kong dollars ($23.7 million USA).
in a year, on 6 April 2015-го, at a special auction of Poly Auction in Hong Kong devoted exclusively to the works of Tsui Jojo, series "the Great snow mountain landscape of Jiangnan" (Jiangnan — historical region in China, which occupies the right Bank of the lower reaches of the Yangtze river) of the eight landscapes with ink on paper reached a hammer price of 236 million HK dollars ($30,444 million U.S.).
a Year later, history repeated itself again: the solo-аукционе Tsui Jojo held Poly Auctions in Hong Kong April 4, 2016 polyptych of six parts "Great snowy mountains" in 2013 reached hammer prices (including auction house Commission) 306 million Hong Kong dollars ($39,577 million States). While that is an absolute record among Asian living artists.
As suggestedart-дилер Johnson Chan, 30 years working with Chinese contemporary art, there is the unconditional desire to raise prices for works by this author, but it all happens at such a price level, where experienced collectors are unlikely to want that-то to buy. "The Chinese want to raise the ratings of their artists, pushing up prices for their work at major international auctions like the one that organized the Poly in Hong Kong, however, there is no doubt that these rankings are completely fabricated", — comments Johnson Chan, the last record Tsui Jojo.
This, of course, only the opinion of a single dealer, and we have a credible record recorded in the database at all. So what are we going to deal with it. Sam Tsui Jojo, judging by his statements, far from the modesty of Gerhard Richter when it comes to his auction success. It seems that this race for records of his seriously amusing. "I hope that over the next 5-10 years the prices of my work will exceed the price of the work of Western masters like Picasso and van Gogh. This is the Chinese dream", — says Tsui Jojo.
Third place in the ranking of living artists belongs to American Jasper Johns (1930). Current record price for a work by Johns — $36 million. Many paid the price for his famous "Flags" at the auction Christie's 12 Nov 2014.
the Series of paintings "flags", launched by Jones in the mid 1950-х immediately following the artist? s return from the army, became one of the Central in his work. The artist in his youth was interested in the idea of Redi-мейда, turning an everyday object into a work of art. However, Jones flags were not real, they were painted in oil on canvas. Thus, the work of art acquired the properties of things taken from everyday life, it was at the same time and the image of the flag and proper flag. A series of works with flags brought Jasper Johns international fame. But no less popular and his abstract work. For years, the list of the most expensive works created by the rules above, headed by its abstract "False". Until 2007, this very bright and decorative canvas, written by Jones in 1959, was considered the owner of practically inaccessible for living artist (even lifetime classic) prices — $to 17 million. So much of it paid in gold for the art-рынка 1988.
Interestingly, the experience of Jasper Johns as a carrier of record was not continuous. In 1989 he interrupted his work colleagues Willem de Kooning: dvuhmetrovaya abstraction "Mixing" was sold at Sotheby's for $20.7 million Jasper Johns had to move. But after 8 years, in 1997, de Kooning died, and "False start" Jones again took first place in the auction ranking of living artists for almost 10 years.
But in 2007, everything changed. The record of "False starts" at first overshadowed by the work of young and ambitious Damien Hirst and Jeff Koons. Then there was a record selling for $33.6 million of the painting "Sleep inspector benefits" brush Lusiena Freud (now deceased and therefore not participating inthis rating). Then began the records of Gerhard Richter. In General, while that with the current record of 36 million Jasper Johns, one of the masters of postwar American art, working at the intersection of neo-дадаизма, abstract expressionism and pop-арта, located on the honorable third place.
the Sudden success of the film "Smash" the artist Edward Rosea (b. 1937) at the auction Christie's November 12, 2014 deduced by this author one of the most expensive living artists. The previous record price for work of ed Rosea (often the name of Ruscha me-русски as "rush", but the correct pronunciation @Rushey mdas) was "only" $of 6.98 million: so many have paid for his canvas "Burning gas station" in 2007. Seven years later, his "Smash" while the estimate of $15-20 million reached a hammer price of $30,4 million. It is obvious that the market for works of this author entered a new level — no wonder his works decorate the White House Barack Obama, and Larry Gagosian puts it in their galleries.
ed Rushey never sought in the post-war new-Йорк with it a craze of abstract expressionism. Instead, for more than 40 years, he sought inspiration in California, where she moved from Nebraska at the age of 18 years. The artist was one of the originators of the new movement in art called pop-арт. Along with Warhol, Lichtenstein, Wayne Thiebaud and other singers of mass culture Edward Rushey in 1962 participated in the exhibition "New image of ordinary things" at the Museum of Pasadena, who became the first Museum exhibitions of American pop-арта. However, the ed Rushey does not like when his work is referred to pop-арту, conceptualism or some-то another trend in art.
His unique style is called "text painting." Since the late 1950-х ed Rushey began to draw words. As well as for Warhol's work of art was a can of soup, for ed Rushia those were normal words and phrases, taken either with a Billboard or packaging in the supermarket, or from the credits of the movie (Hollywood has always had Rosea "at hand", and unlike many of my colleagues-художников Rushey respected "the dream factory"). The words on his canvases acquire the properties of three-dimensional objects, this is the real lifes of words. When you look at his paintings first comes to mind is visual and sound perception of the painted words, and after — meaning. The latter, as a rule, does not give an unambiguous decoding; Rasheem choose words and phrases can be interpreted in-разному. The same bright-желтое the word "Smash" on a deep blue background can be perceived as an aggressive call to shatter that-то or anyone-то; alone as an adjective, taken out of context (part of a-то a newspaper headline, for example), or simply as a separate word, caught in the urban flow of visual images. Ed Rushey enjoy this uncertainty. "I have always deeply respected the strange, unexplainable things... Explaining what-то sense killing thing" — he said in an interview.
American artist Christopher Wool (1955) first broke into the ranking of living artists in 2013 — after the sale of the work "Apocalypse now" for $26.5 million This record at once put it on par with Jasper Johns and Gerhard Richter. The value of this historic deal — more than $20 million — surprised many, since she prices the artist's work does not exceed $8 million. However, the rapid growth of the market of works by Christopher wool by that time was already evident in the record of the artist's auction there were 48 deals worth over $1 million, and 22 of them (almost half) took place in 2013. Two years later, the number of works of Chris Voula, sold more than $1 million reached 70, and a new personal record was not long in coming. At the auction Sotheby's 12 may 2015 the work "untitled (RIOT)" was sold for $29,93 million taking into account the Buyer's Premium.
Christopher Wool is known primarily for his large-scale works with images of black letters on white aluminum sheets. They usually set records at auctions. All these things are the end of 1980-х — early 1990-х. As the legend goes, one day the Street was walking in the evening at the new-Йорку and suddenly saw in a new white truck graffiti black letters — words sex and luv. This sight so impressed him that he immediately returned to the Studio and wrote their version with the same words. It was 1987, and further exploration by the artist of words and phrases for their "letter" of the works reflect the contradictory spirit of the time. This call to "sell the house sell the car sell the kids" taken by Vul from the movie "Apocalypse now", and the word "FOOL" ("durak") in capital letters and the word "RIOT" ("rebellion") often seen in newspaper headlines of the time.
Words and phrases Vul was applied to aluminum sheets using stencils alkyd or enamel paints, deliberately leaving streaks, residue from stencils and other evidence of the creative process. The words of the artist shared so that the viewer does not immediately understand the meaning. At first you see only a conglomeration of letters, i.e., perceive the word as a visual object, and then read and decode the meaning of phrases or words. Vul used the font that was in Vogue at the U.S. military after world war II, which reinforces the impression of order, directives of the slogan. These "alpha" work perceived as part of the urban landscape, graffiti as illegal, breaching the surface what-то street facility. This series of works by Christopher wool is recognized as one of the pinnacles of linguistic abstraction, and therefore so highly valued by lovers of contemporary art.
British Peter Doig (1959), though he belongs to a generation of postmodernists Koons and Hirst, have chosen for themselves a very traditional genre of landscape, the former is not in favor with the best artists. Their creativity Peter Doig revives faded there was a public interest in thefigurative painting. His work was highly appreciated both critics and laymen, and the evidence — rapid growth of prices for his works. If in the early 1990-х his landscapes were worth a few thousand dollars, now the account goes on millions.
Creativity Doig is often called magical realism. Based on real landscapes he creates fanciful, mysterious, and often dark images. The artist likes to portray abandoned by people close to the dilapidated building built by Le Corbusier in the middle of a forest or an empty white canoe on the surface of a forest lake. Apart from nature and imagination, Doig inspired by horror movies, old postcards, photographs, Amateur videos and so on. The paintings Doig colorful, complex, decorative and provocative. Such a nice painting to own. Stirs interest collectors, and even low productivity of the author: living in Trinidad, the artist creates not more than a dozen paintings a year.
In the early 2000-х separate landscape paintings were sold for a few hundred thousand dollars. Then the Doig hit in the Saatchi gallery, at the Biennale at the Whitney Museum and in the collection of MOMA. In 2006 has been overcome in the auction plank $1 million And the next year took an unexpected breakthrough: "the White canoe", offered at Sotheby's on 7 February 2007 with an estimate of $0.8–1.2 million, five times exceeded the preliminary estimate and was sold for £5.7 million ($11.3 million). At that time it was a record price for work by living European artist.
In 2008,-м held solo exhibitions Doig in the Tate gallery and the Museum of modern art in Paris. A multimillion-dollar price tags for Doig became the norm. Personal record of Peter Doig recently was updated several times a year — we only have time, to change the picture and the place of this artist in our ranking of living authors.
To date, the most expensive work by Peter Doig — snowy landscape "Rosedale" ("Rosedale") in 1991. Interestingly, the record was set not at Sotheby's or Christie's, and the auction of contemporary art auction house Phillips. It happened may 18, 2017. View of snowy Rosedale, one of the districts of Toronto, was sold to a telephone buyer for $28.81 million Is about 3 million above the previous record ($25.9 million for the work "caught in a quagmire"). The painting "Rosedale" took part in the key exhibition Doig at the Whitechapel gallery in London in 1998, and overall, the job market was fresh, but because record price is well deserved.
At Sotheby's auction in Hong Kong October 5, 2013 large-scale painting "the last supper" the Beijing artist Zeng Fanzhi (1964) was sold for a record $ 160 million Hong Kong dollars — $23.3 million United States. The final cost of the work Fanzhi, written, of course, influenced by the work of Leonardo da Vinci, was twice higher than the preliminary valuation of about $10 million Previous price record Zeng Fanchzhi — $9.6 million, paid at Christie's Hong Kong auction in may 2008 for the work "Mask Series. 1996. No. 6".
"the last supper" — heaviest(2.2 x 4 metres) canvas Fanchzhi in a series of "Masks", covering the period from 1994 to 2001. The cycle is dedicated to the evolution of Chinese society under the impact of economic reforms. The introduction by the PRC government elements of the market economy has led to urbanization and the separation of the Chinese. Fanzhi shows the people of modern Chinese cities who have to fight for a place under the sun. Everyone knows the song Leonardo in reading Fanzhi becomes very different: the scene is transferred from Jerusalem to the classroom of the Chinese school with the typical boards of hieroglyphs on the walls. "Christ" and "apostles" have turned into the pioneers with red ties, and only the "Judas" wears a gold tie — is a metaphor for Western capitalism, penetrating and destroying the habitual way of life in a socialist country.
the work of Zeng Fanzhi stylistically close to European expressionism and equally dramatic. But they are full of Chinese symbols and specifics. This diversity has attracted the artist both Chinese and Western collectors. Direct confirmation — provenance "the last supper": the work was auctioned a well-known collector of Chinese avant-garde 1980-х — early 1990-х — Belgian Baron guy Ullensa.
At the auction Christie's may 13, 2015 abstract "the Bridge" 85-летнего American artist Robert Reimann (Robert Ryman) was sold for $20.6 million including Commission — is two times more expensive than the lower estimate.
Robert Ryman (1930) did not realize that he wants to become an artist. At the age of 23 years he moved to new-Йорк, Nashville (Tenn), wanting to become a jazz saxophonist. And yet he became a famous musician, had to moonlight as a security guard at MOMA, where he became acquainted with Sol Le Witt and Dan Flavin. First worked at the Museum as a night Secretary and the second a security guard and Elevator operator. Impressed by what he saw at MOMA of works of the abstract expressionists — Rothko, De Kooning, Pollock, and Newman — Robert Ryman in 1955 he took up painting.
Reimann is often grouped with the minimalists, but he prefers to be called "realist" because he was not interested in creating illusions, it only demonstrates the quality of the used materials. Most of his works written in colours of all possible shades of white (greyish or yellowish — to dazzling white) based on concise square shape. During his career, Robert Ryman has tried many materials and techniques: painted in oils, acrylic, casein, enamel, pastel, gouache etc. on canvas, steel, plexiglass, aluminum, paper, corrugated cardboard, vinyl, Wallpaper and so His friend, a professional restorer Orrin Riley, advised him about the mordant materials that came into his head to use. Once said the artist, "I never question, to write but — to write." It's all about the texture, nature of the strokes, in the border betweencolorful surface and edges of the framework as well as in the ratio operation and the wall. Since 1975, a special feature of his works are mounting, the design of which Rayman is developing himself and purposely leave them visible, highlighting its work "as real, as real wall, where they hang". Ryman prefers to give "names", but not "name". "Name" — is what helps to distinguish one work from another, and Rayman often gives names to their works by brand of paint, companies, etc., and "name," claims to have-то allusions and deeply hidden meanings, whose presence in his works, the artist regularly denies. Nothing but material and technology, it doesn't matter.
the English artist Damien Hirst (1965) was destined first to threaten in the first place this rating in the dispute as a classic, Jasper Jones. Already mentioned the work of "False start" could long remain unsinkable leader, if on 21 June 2007 installation at the time 42-летнего Hirst "sleeping spring" (2002) was sold at Sotheby's for £9.76 million, that is $19.2 million. The work, by the way, has a rather unusual format. On the one hand, this wardrobe-витрина with dummy pills (6 pills 136), in fact, a classic installation. And the other —, the window made flat (10 cm deep), taken to frame and hang on the wall, as the plasma panel, it is ensuring the comfort of ownership, characteristic of paintings. In 2002, the sister of the installation, "sleeping winter" sold for $7.4 million, more than twice cheaper. The difference in price who-то "explained" by the fact that the winter pills more faded. But it is clear that this explanation is completely unfounded, because the pricing mechanism for such things is no longer associated with their decorative.
In 2007-м a recognized author Hirst's most expensive work of living artists. The question, however, one of those "depends on how you count". The fact that Hurst was sold for an expensive pounds, and Jones, for now depreciating the dollar, and even twenty years ago. But even if we take at face value, without taking into account 20-летней inflation, the dollar was expensive work of Hirst, and in pounds — Jones. The situation was the border, and every man was free to decide who is the most expensive. But lasted Hurst in the first place not so long. In the same year, 2007, it is shifted from the first position Koons with his "Hanging heart".
just before the global recession of prices for contemporary art Hirst has taken unprecedented for a young artist initiative — solo-аукцион of his works, which took place on 15 September 2008 in London. News announced on the eve of the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers did not ruined the appetite of lovers of modern art: from the proposed Sotheby's 223 works, the new owners have not found a total of five (one of the buyers, by the way, was Viktor Pinchuk). The work "the Golden calf" — is a huge stuffed bull in formaldehyde, topped with a Golden disc,— already brought £10.3 million ($18.6 million). This is the best result of Hirst, if you count in pounds (the currency in which the transaction was conducted). However, we are ranking in terms of dollars, so (forgive us, "the Golden calf") the best selling Hurst we will consider all the same "Sleepy spring".
Since 2008, the sales level "Sleepy spring" and "Golden calf" Hurst was not. Fresh records 2010-х — on Richter's work, Jones, Fanzhi, Voula and Koons — pushed Damien on the sixth place in our ranking. But let's not make categorical judgments about the decline of the era of Hearst. According to analysts, Hearst as "superstar" has already entered into history and, therefore, buying it will be a very long; however, the greatest value in the future is projected for works created in the most innovative period of his career, that is, in 1990-х.
the Italian Maurizio Cattelan (1960) came to the art once worked as a security guard, a cook, a gardener and furniture designer. Author-самоучка became world famous thanks to its ironic sculptures and installations. He attacked the meteorite to the Pope, was made the wife of the customer in the trophy, made a hole in the floor in the Museum of the old masters, showed a giant middle finger to the stock exchange in Milan, brought a live donkey at the fair Frieze. In the near future Cattelan promises to install a Golden toilet in the Guggenheim Museum. In the end, the antics of Maurizio Cattelan has received wide recognition in the art-мире: he was invited at the Venice Biennale (installation "Other" in 2011 — flock of two thousand pigeons that menacing look with all pipes and beams down on passing crowds of visitors), give him a retrospective in the new-йоркском the Guggenheim Museum (November 2011) and finally, paying for his sculptures a lot of money.
in 2010, the most expensive work of Maurizio Cattelan was a wax sculpture peeking out of the holes in the floor of a man, similar in appearance to the artist (untitled, 2001). This sculpture-инсталляция that exists in the amount of three copies, plus the author's copy was first shown at the Museum Boijmans van Beuningen in Rotterdam. Then this naughty character peeking out from the hole in the floor of the hall with the paintings by Dutch painters of the XVIII — XIX centuries. Maurizio Cattelan in this work, associating himself with the daring criminal, invading the sacred space of the Museum hall with the paintings of the great masters. Thus, he wants to deprive the art of halo of sanctity, which he attached to Museum walls. Work, for the sake of exposure where every time you have to perforate floor, sold for $7,922 million at Sotheby's.
the Record lasted until may 8, 2016, when the more provocative work of Cattelan's "Him", depicting the kneeling figure of Hitler, went under the hammer for $17,189 million Thing strange. The strange name. Character — risky. Like all Cattelan. What do you mean Him? "His" or "His infernal majesty"? It is clear that it definitely is not about the glorification of the image of the Fuhrer. In this work, Hitler appears to be rather helpless,pathetic. And absurd — is the incarnation of Satan is made the size of a child, dressed like a student and is on his knees with a humble expression on his face. For Cattelan this image — invitation to reflect on the nature of absolute evil and the way of deliverance from fear. By the way, the Western audience the sculpture "Him" is well known. Her brothers in the series, exhibited more than 10 times in leading museums, including the Centre Pompidou and the Museum of Solomon Guggenheim.
17 may 2017 at the evening auction at Christie's in new-Йорке was one of the most powerful pictorial works grotyana from when-либо put up for auction. The painting "untitled (S III Released to France Face 43.14)" put a Parisian collector Patrick SEGUIN with a valuation of $13-16 million, and since the sale of the lot was guaranteed by a third party, the establishment of a new personal auction record 49-летнего artist no-one was surprised. Hammer price $14,75 million (and taking into account Buyer's Premium $16.8 million) surpassed the previous auction record of Grotiana more than $10 million This allowed him to enter the living artists whose work is sold for eight-figure sums. Seven-digit same results (sales of more than $1 million but not more than $10 million) in the auction the Bank grotyana for about thirty.
mark Grotjahn (1968), whose work professionals perceive the influence of modernism, abstract minimalism, pop@ -.-арта, came to his signature style in the mid-1990-х, after moving with a friend by Brent Peterson in Los-Анджелес and open gallery "Room 702". As recalled by the artist himself, at that time he began thinking about his art in the first place. He sought the motive with which it would be possible to experiment. And realized that he was always an interesting line and color. Experiments in the spirit of Luisma and simple, linear perspective, multiple vanishing points and colorful abstract triangular shapes in the end brought Gratiano worldwide fame.
From the abstract colorful landscapes with multiple lines of the horizon and vanishing points of perspective in the end he came to the triangular shapes, reminiscent of butterfly wings. Pictures of Grotiana 2001-2007 call — "Butterflies". Today the movement of the vanishing point or the use of several vanishing points, separated in space, is one of the most powerful techniques of the artist.
the Next great series of works called "Person"; in the abstract lines of this series to discern the characteristics of the human face, simplified to the status of a mask in the spirit of Matisse, Jawlensky or Brancusi. Speaking of extreme simplification and stylization of forms of compositional decision paintings, when the disparate contours of the eyes, mouths, as if watching us from the forest, the researchers noted the relationship of "Persons" Grotiana with the art of the primitive tribes of Africa and Oceania, while the artist himself simply "like the image of eyes looking out of the jungle. I sometimes imagined the faces of the baboons or monkeys. Can't say that consciously or subconsciously I was underthe influence of primitive African art, I was influenced by artists who were influenced by it. Picasso is the most obvious example."
of the series "Faces" called brutal and elegant, pleasing to the eye and pleasant to the mind. Changes over time and texture of these works: to create the effect of the internal space, the artist uses broad brushstrokes of thick paint, even splashing in the style of Pollock, but the painting surface is aligned so that on close examination, it seems absolutely flat. Set auction record painting "untitled (S III Released to France Face 43.14)" falls into this famous series grotyana.
Japanese Takashi Murakami (1962) was included in our rating with the sculpture "My lone cowboy", sold at Sotheby's in may 2008 for $15.16 million. With this sale, Takashi Murakami has long been considered the most successful living Asian artist — until it was eclipsed by the sale of "the last supper" Zeng Fanzhi.
Takashi Murakami works as a painter, sculptor, designer and animator. Murakami wanted to base his work that-то really Japanese, Western and without any other borrowing. In his student years, he was fascinated by traditional Japanese painting nihonga, later it was replaced by the popular art of anime and manga. Thus was born the psychedelic Mr DOB, patterns of smiling flowers and bright, shiny sculpture made of fiberglass, seemed to have just descended from the pages of Japanese comics. Some believe the art of Murakami fast-фудом and the epitome of vulgarity, the other is called Japanese artist Andy Warhol — and in the ranks of the latter, as you can see, a lot of very rich people.
Murakami borrowed the title for his sculpture of Andy Warhol's "lonesome cowboys" (1968), which the Japanese, as he himself admitted, never looked, but painfully he liked the combination of words. Murakami one sculpture, and pleased fans of erotic Japanese comics, and laughed at them. Increased in size, and besides, more three-dimensional, the hero of the anime turns into a fetish of mass culture. This artistic statement is in the spirit of classic Western pop-арта (remember the furniture of Allen Jones or the Pink Panther, Koons), but with a national twist.
Among relatively young and modern Chinese artists, who one and all belong to the so-called "new wave" of the late 1980-х in Chinese art, in our rating quite unexpectedly came the representative of another generation and another school. Jin Shan (Jin Shangyi), who is now 80, belongs to the bright representatives of the first generation artists of Communist China.The views of this group of artists was formed in large measure under the influence of the closest Communist ally — of the USSR.
the Official Soviet art, socialist realism, unusual back then for China oil paintings (in contrast to the traditional Chinese painting with ink) in 1950-е years was at the peak of popularity, and in the Beijing art University for three years (1954-1957) came to teach Soviet artist Konstantin mefodyevich Maximov. To him in the class and got the Jin Shan, which at the time was the youngest in the group. His teacher, the artist always remembered with great warmth, said that Maximov had taught him to correctly understand and render the model. K. M. Maksimov trained a lot of Chinese realists, now classics.
In the work of Jin Shan, the influence of the Soviet "severe style" and the European school of painting. A lot of the time the artist devoted to the study of the heritage of the Renaissance and classicism, at the same time he felt the need to save and the Chinese spirit in their works. The picture of the "Tajik bride", written in 1983, is recognized as a masterpiece, a milestone in the work of Jin Shan. It-то and put up for auction of China Guardian in November 2013 and sold several times more expensive estimeyta — for $13,89 million including Commission.
Frank Stella (Frank Stella) — bright representative motivatinal of abstraction and minimalism in art. At a certain stage it belongs to the representatives of the hard style loops (“hard edge painting”). At first his work Stella contrasted the strict geometric, monochrome and austere structure of his paintings of spontaneity and randomness of the paintings of abstract expressionists like Jackson Pollock.
In the late 1950-х years, the artist was noticed by the famous art dealer Leo Castelli and was first awarded at the exhibition. In it, he introduced the so-called "Black paintings" — paintings, painted parallel black lines with thin intervals of unpainted canvas between them. Lines are formed in a geometric shape than-то reminiscent of optical illusions, those images that flicker, move, twist, create a sense of deep space, if you long to see them. The theme of parallel lines with a thin spacer strips Stella continued to work on aluminum and copper. Changed the colors, the picturesque framework and even the shape of paintings (among others there are works in the form of the letters U, T, L). But the main principle of his paintings at-прежнему consisted in the definition of the contour of monumentality, simple form, monochrome. In subsequent decades, Stella has gone from this geometric painting in the direction of flowing, natural forms and lines, and monochromatic paintings — to bright and various color transitions. In 1970-е Stella captivated huge patterns, which paint the ships. The artist used them to huge paintings with elements of assemblage — included in work pieces of steel pipe or wire mesh.
In his early interview with Frank Stella franklytalks about investing in their work of meaning, or rather about their absence: "what you see is what you see". Painting is itself an object, not a reproduction of what-либо. "It's a flat surface with paint on it and nothing more" — said Stella.
well, this "surface with paint on it" if this is the work of Frank Stella, today can be worth millions of dollars. At auction at Sotheby's 4 November 2015 his work in 1961 "Crossing the Delaware" was purchased for a record $13,69 million including Commission. The work belongs to the series "Benjamin Moore". It's only paint brand paint you used Stella in writing of all six works of the series. Money on oil paint for artists he did not have enough. The young artist worked the repair work, he loved pure color paint paint, and then had the idea to work the paint on the canvas. Work series named in honor of the events of the Civil war in the United States or, in the case of "Transition Delaware", inspired by the events of the War for independence. The title refers to the legendary river crossing the Delaware by George Washington on Christmas night 1776. This is a dangerous crossing of the Delaware is among only started to get ice, held at night in secret from the enemy, brought the army of Washington major victory. And Frank Stella's "Crossing the Delaware" has brought place in our ranking of living artists.
American artist John currin (1962) known for his satirical figurative paintings on provocative sexual and social themes. The work of Curran manage to combine the painting techniques of the old masters (especially Lucas Cranach the Elder and the Mannerists) and fashion-фотографии of glossy magazines. Trying to get the most grotesque, Curran often distorts the proportions of the human body increases or decreases its individual parts, shows heroes in angular, mannered poses.
Started in 1989 Curran-м with portraits of girls, redrawn from the Yearbook; continued in the early 1990-х pictures with Busty beauties, inspired by a photo from Cosmopolitan and Playboy@the semicolon in 1992, there were portraits of wealthy older ladies; and in 1994, Curran married sculptor Rachel Feinstein, who became his main Muse and model for many years. By the end of 1990-х technical skills of Curran in conjunction with the kitsch and the grotesque, his paintings have brought him popularity. In 2003, for promotion of the artist came from Larry Gagosian, and if the author does this dealer like Gagosian, success is guaranteed. In 2004 there was a retrospective of John Currin at the Whitney Museum.
Around this time his work began to sell for six figures. The current record for a painting by John Curran belongs to the work "Nice and easy", sold November 15, 2016 at Christie's for $12 million a Picture with two naked barely overcame the lower limit for the estimate of $12-18 million And however, to John Curran, who is now 50, this is certainly a breakthrough in his career. His previous record of 2008 was $5.5 million (paid for, by the way, for the same work "Cute andjust").
David Hockney (1937) — is one of the most significant British artists of the twentieth century. In 2011, according to a survey of thousands of professional British artists, David Hockney was named the most influential British artist of all time. While Hockney is spared such masters as William Turner and Francis bacon. His work usually relates to pop-арту, although in his early works he was more drawn to expressionism in the spirit of Francis bacon.
Born and raised David Hockney in England, in the County of Yorkshire. Mother of the future artist kept his family in Puritan rigor, and his father, an accountant, a little draw at the Amateur level, encouraged classes son painting. In 20, David moved to California, where he lived for a total of about three decades. He and now there are two workshops. Hockney made heroes of his works, the wealthy, and their houses, pools, flooded with California sunshine lawns. One of the most famous works of the American period — painting "Splash" — is a sheaf of spray rising from the pool after leaping into the water man. To represent this sheaf, "living" not more than two seconds, Hockney worked for two weeks. By the way, this picture in 2006 was sold at Sotheby's for $5.4 million and what-то time was considered the most expensive of his work. Then, in 2009, it was replaced with the work "a Housewife from Beverly-Хиллз," sold at auction Christie's for $7.9 million
Another feature of David Hockney — his passion for technology and technical innovations. He got the idea to make giant collages of Polaroids, published his work on Fax-аппаратах, and today an elderly artist enthusiastically develops drawing on the iPad. The pictures painted on the tablet, take its rightful place at his exhibitions.
since 1990-х years, the artist often went to his home in Yorkshire, and in 2005-м finally returned to England. Now he writes in the open air and in the Studio is huge (often consisting of several parts) the views of the local woods and heaths. According to Hockney, for 30 years in California, he was so unaccustomed to a simple change of the seasons, that she's his-настоящему delights and fascinates. The whole series of his recent works on, for example, the same landscape at different times of the year.
One of these Yorkshire landscapes and became the most expensive work of the artist. At auction Sotheby's 17 Nov 2016 landscape David Hockney's "Forest of Woldgate 24, 25 and 26 October 2006", consisting of 6 parts, was sold for a record for the author $11.71 million
Another living American abstract artist in our ranking — is Brice Marden (1938). Of Marden in the style of minimalism, and since the late 1980-х — gestural painting, are uniquethe author, a slightly subdued palette. The combination of colors on the works of Marden was inspired by his travels around the world — Greece, India, Thailand, Sri-Ланке. Among the authors that influenced the formation of Marden, — Jackson Pollock (in the early 1960-х Marden worked as a guard at the Jewish Museum, where they witnessed a "dripping" by Jackson Pollock), Alberto Giacometti (met him in Paris) and Robert Rauschenberg (what-то time, Marden worked as his assistant). The first stage of creativity Marden given classic minimalist paintings composed of colored rectangular blocks (horizontal or vertical). In contrast to many other minimalists, to achieve an ideal quality of works, as if printed by machine rather than painted by a person, Marden retains traces of the artist's work, combined different materials (wax and oil paint). Since the mid-1980-х years, under the influence of Eastern calligraphy, the change of geometric abstraction came winding, laundromatinee lines, the background for which were all of the same monochrome color field. One of these "landrover" works — "Attended The" — at auction Sotheby's in November 2013 was sold for $10,917 million including Commission.
Another representative of the Chinese contemporary art — symbolist and surrealist Zhang Xiaogang (1958). At Sotheby's auction in Hong Kong on 3 April 2011, where it was sold to the Chinese avant-garde from the collection of the Belgian Baron guy of Ullens, triptych Syaogana Zhang "Eternal love" was sold for $10.2 m. At that time it was a record not only for the artist but for the whole Chinese contemporary-арта. Say that the work Syaogana was bought by the wife of billionaire Wang Wei (Wang Wei), which is going to open his own Museum.
Zhang Xiaogang, fascinated by mysticism and Eastern philosophy, wrote the story "Eternal love" in three parts — life, death and rebirth. This triptych was involved in the cult exhibition 1989 "China/avant-garde" at the National art Museum. In the same 1989 Tiananmen square military was brutally suppressed student demonstrations. Following this tragic event began the crackdown — exhibition at the National Museum were dispersed, many artists emigrated. In response to the socialist realism imposed from above emerged towards cynical realism, one of the main representatives of which was Zhang Xiaogang.
American Bruce Nauman (1941), the Grand prize winner of the 48 Venice Biennale (1999), long went to his record. Nauman began his career in the sixties. Experts called it, along with Andy Warhol and Joseph Beuys, one of the most influential figures in the art of the second half of the twentieth century. However, intense intellectuality, and the absolute redecorating some of his works, obviouslylet its quick recognition and success among the General public. Nauman often experimenting with language, revealing unexpected meanings of familiar phrases. Words become Central characters in many of his works, including a neon pseudonymise and panels. Sam Naumann calls himself a sculptor, although over the last forty years, he tried himself in various genres — sculpture, photography, video art, performances, chart. In the early nineties, Larry Gagosian said prophetic words: "the Real value of the works of Naumann we have yet to realize". And so it happened: on 17 may 2001 in Christie's work of Bruce Nauman, 1967 "Helpless Henry Moore (back view)" (Henry Moore Bound to Fail (Backview)) set a new record in the segment of post-war art. Made from plaster and wax cast of a tied behind back hands of Bruce Nauman went under the hammer for $9.9 million in the collection of the French magnate Francois Pinault (according to others, the American Phyllis Wattis). Estimate of work amounted to only $2-3 million, so the result was a real surprise.
To this legendary sale, only two of Nauman crossed the bar of one million dollars. And for all of his auction career, while only six works, in addition to "Henry Moore...", went for seven figures, but their results still do not go to any comparison with nine million.
"Helpless Henry Moore" — one of a series of polemical works by Nauman on the figure by Henry Moore (1898-1986), British artist who in the sixties was attributed to the greatest sculptors of the twentieth century. Young authors, which was in the shade of a recognized master, then attacked him with ardent criticism. The work of Nauman — response to this criticism and at the same time a meditation on the theme of creativity. The work's title becomes a pun, as it connects the two meanings of the English word bound — bound (literally) and doomed to a certain fate.
When quoting reference to the https://artinvestment.ru without fail
- 15.02.2018 In the former workshop of Vera Mukhina open to the public "Iconotheca A. N. Ovchinnikov» The Grabar centre announced that the new exhibition space dedicated to the Russian icon, will open February 20, 2018 at the following address: Prechistensky pereulok, 5A
- 15.02.2018 BRAFA-2018 reported sales Sold works of CY Twombly, Serge Polyakov, albert Marquet, and others. Many expensive paintings being negotiated. And Yes, the spacesuit of the astronaut Strekalova also found a new owner
- 14.02.2018 The building owner sued for $ 6.7 million for the destruction of valuable graffiti Precedent in new-йоркском court puts in a new plane of relationships between owners of property and of authors of works of street art on objects
- 14.02.2018 Ancylostoma — 80. The memorial evening will take place on 15 February 2018 Distinguished artist of Russian post-war non-art, died on February 4, 2018, a little over a month before their anniversary. On Thursday, the day of his birth, on Ostozhenka, 16, gather the people who knew him and loved
- 12.02.2018 Kodak has suddenly postponed the launch of the blockchain for photographers Instead of the promised start of a mass to attract investors, scheduled for 31 January, the developers have started that-то dark. Maybe everything and anything, but Kodak shares plunged twice
- 15.02.2018 The desideratum of the NLR at the auction "Russian enamel» 24 Feb "KABINET" will hold an auction of rare books, manuscripts, autographs, photographs, posters, maps and postcards, totaling more than 15 000 000 rubles
- 15.02.2018 Paintings and drawings at the Auction house Egorov February 20 will feature works by artists of the pre-revolutionary art and artists of the Soviet period. Put up for auction of 197 lots totaling more than 21.5 million rubles
- 14.02.2018 Two valuable collection in two auctions "Cabinet" 17 Feb Autographs Bunin and Pasternak, Bulgakov's photo with his dedication, notebooks and diaries Erofeeva, inscripti the largest Russian poets and prose writers of the second half of the XX century, paintings and drawings of iconic representatives of unofficial art
- 14.02.2018 The auction, philocarty and used books auction house "Russian enamel» In the auction catalog on 17 February included 338 lots
- 13.02.2018 Opened 215-е the Auction Traditional twenty lots — nine paintings, seven of the original sheets and four — printed graphics
- 08.02.2018 Auction "Russian enamel" on January 27. Short summary Revenue of almost 7 million rubles. For men portrait by Vladimir Makovsky paid 600 thousand
- 06.02.2018 The first art auction on January 31 in "the literary Fund» Last day of January has pleased all lovers of painting, graphics and decorative-прикладного art 93-ми auction the Auction house "Russian enamel»
- 30.01.2018 The results of the auction on January 24 at the Auction house "Russian enamel» The first auction of 2018 gathered a full room and in a light, positive mood was a good start to the new season sales
- 10.01.2018 Artist of the week. Victor Kazarin Bright representative of unofficial art 1970-80-х years party gorkomovskoy group "21". Today we capture a new wave of interest to creativity of the outstanding Russian neoekspressionista, work Kazarina became the hits of the Auction
- 29.12.2017 The results of the auction the Auction house "Russian icon" 25 Dec The total volume of trading amounted to more than 5 million rubles
- 15.02.2018 Jackie Tsai at MMSI Exhibition of British pop-арт-художника of Chinese origin Jackie Tsai "Send me to the moon" takes place in the branch of the Moscow Museum of modern art on Gogol Boulevard on March 11
- 15.02.2018 The exhibition of Igor Tikhonov at the Kuznetsk bridge Personal exhibition of Igor Vsevolodovich Tikhonov opened in the exhibition hall of Moscow Union of artists on Kuznetsky most and 17 February
- 14.02.2018 A new exhibition of Russian art in Malaga The Spanish branch of the Russian Museum opened three new exhibitions — "For the happiness of the people", "Travel of Russian artists" and "Mikhail Shvartsman»
- 01.02.2018 Boris Kustodiyev at the Museum "New Jerusalem» The exhibition "Crown of earthly colors" will show more than 60 paintings of the thirteen Russian museums and private collections
- 29.01.2018 Graphic hyperrealism by Sergei Geta in pop/off/art 1970-х 1987 Sergei geta was part of the group "Six", together with Sergei Bazileva, Alexei Tehilim, Sergei Sherstiuk, Igor Kopystiansky and Nikolai Filatov. With a new exhibition, the artist for the first time in many years returned to the large-format chart
Login for subscribers
- 1. Leonardo da Vinci$450,3 million
- 2. Pablo Picasso$179,4 million
- 3. Qi Baishi$144 million
- 4. Amedeo Modigliani$170,4 million
- 5. Francis Bacon$142,4 million
- 6. Alberto Giacometti$141,3 million
- 7. Edvard Munch$119,9 million
- 8. Andy Warhol$105,5 million
- 9. Roy Lichtenstein$95,4 million
- 10. Gustav Klimt$87,9 million
- 11. Mark Rothko$86,9 million
- 12. Barnett Newman$84,2 million
- 13. Vincent van Gogh$82,5 million
- 14. Claude Monet$81,45 million
- 15. Auguste Renoir$78,1 million
- 16. Peter Paul Rubens$76,7 million
- 17. Cy Twombly$70,5 million
- 18. Fernand Léger$70,06 million
- 19. Willem de Kooning$66,3 million
- 20. Paul Cezanne$60,5 million
- Ф.Бурхардт, Астрахань 13 июня 93 г
- Victor Kazarin. Selected publications and photo
- Помогите с авторством картины
- Икона Св.Лука, первая четверть 18 го века, оценка
- Chulovich Victor. Help with attribution.
- Chulovich Victor. Help with attribution.
- Оценка иконы
- Полотно Икона Св.Николай Чудотворец Можайский
- Icon of Jesus Christ Pantocrator 19th century lackey
- Неизвестная икона, прошу атрибуции