What do the symbols on the prints. Interview with Valery Silaeva
ARTinvestment.RU 13 мая 2015
To explain some of the lottery schedule found on signs, as well as to answer questions from new buyers, we asked the specialist equipment and graphics materials, accredited expert MKAAD Valeria Silaeva
Draw graphics — Cinderella of the global auction market. About it do not write the headlines, auction giants don't make it to the top-лоты, and on price records it is difficult to compete with painting. However, this prude is responsible for a fair share of the market. Thus, according to French colleagues, on the Western auction market draw graphics takes more than 21% in the structure of sales of lots and 3 % in the money. Interest in recent years has increased dramatically and continues to grow. If in 2004, an auction sale of the prints was about $107 million, 2012-м — for about $224 million Why customers suddenly pounced on the prints and where did the previous arrogance in relation to non-unique works?
Explain what is happening only affordability will not work. Probably, the growing interest in printmaking was largely due to the dramatic changes in the psychology of buyers and change of generations. If in the old days collectors with high piety belonged to the uniqueness, the buyers who grew up in the era of Warhol's factory, workshops Hirst and Koons, circulation already did not care. The name, plot, recognition of the things — all this for them much more important than the annoyance from the fact that similar work can be your neighbor.
In our market, by the way, occur the same ideological shifts. According to statistics, private auction AI, it can be stated that lithography Rabin, leaves Pepperstein, etching hall and Krasnopevtseva, and other mass work of the first names bulk buyer meets with a Bang. Effective demand is always there, and to prevent the conclusion of the transaction can only overstated reserves. It and is clear: good things and replicate, so they were cheap.
a lottery drawing by Purchasing at auctions and in galleries, not all customers understand the meaning of the symbols in the descriptions of the lot. But this culture of labeling for a reason was formed hundreds of years ago and continues to evolve — on the development of modern technology author lottery drawing. To decode some common print symbols, and to answer questions new buyers we asked the specialist equipment and graphics materials, accredited expert MKAAD Valeria Silaeva.
ARTinvestment.RU: Valery, most buyers of prints knows that, in addition to the mandatory check its authenticity, you need to pay attention to the circulation and number of print in circulation (for example, 2/30). But is it true that the closer the room to the beginning of the circulation, the more valuable the print? 2/30 that is really more valuable than 18/30? From-за physical deterioration of the printed form?
Valery Silaev: I don't think so. As a rule, in circulation all prints are printed the same and the differences between the first and thirtieth no no. In any case, should not be. And the desire to have the first copy comes from ambition — vanity to amuse.
AI: in Addition to the number of print and size of print run, the print often letter combinations. Can we decipher the most common visitors of our site?
vs: Indeed, there are designations, which stand on each print, others fall from time to time or very rarely. In the most compressed form of a brief Glossary for the symbols on the chart would look like this:
- A. R. (eng.: Artist's Proof) or E. A. (FR.: épreuve d'artiste) X/XX — original prints are often numbered by Roman numerals;
- N. S. (FR.: hors de commerce) — print out of circulation, not intended for sale;
- R. R. or P/P (eng.: Proof by the Printer or Printer's Proof) — one or two of print, left to the printer;
- S. P. (eng.: Proof State or FR.: épreuve d'état) — checklist print out copies to archive;
- Multiple —-circulation publication;
- BAT (FR.: bon à tirer or the English.: ready to print) — for the standard edition;
- Cancellation Proof — is a stamp on the end of the game, confirming the destruction of the image on the printed form;
- State 2 — state Board 2;
- Trial I — proof I.
AI: What does "the state of the Board 2"?
vs: "Status Board 2" means that after printing a certain and specified number of copies of prints (copies) the artist has modified a Board that-то changed it, added and printed another edition.
AI: What is "proof of I"?
vs: After producing the printing form circulation begin to print immediately, but first do a test print. And it is not always perfect quality. I will try looking for different color combinations in printmaking (e.g., etching can be black, red, blue or any other color), its density, and when they find this ideal, we put Wat — to print only the copies you need so.
AI: it is believed that the graphics in General are too demanding of storage conditions, especially humidity and light. It comes down to what people are looking for what-то sealed case for protection against humidity and even air conditioning equipment. How justified is that in urban environments? In what place in the apartment with a calm heart to hang lottery drawing under the glass?
vs: Printed graphics unlike the original the least demanding of lighting and variations in temperature-влажностного mode. However, paper is paper. You should avoid direct sunlight and hang the chart so that it the light did not fall. You can darken the Windows, but it is best to hang the job on the same wall where the window. The temperature should be normal room, and the humidity is about 50 % — for all people.
Sealed unwanted saddlebags. The paper needs to "breathe" —, it will get used to your home environment. If dry, you can put cans of water, aquariums, and if wet — try to make the air in the room drier. Special HVAC equipment is expensive, and the prints in the mass — is a democratic art form.
AI: is There-то labeling allowing to determine the degree of participation of the artist in the production of circulation: he was standing at the machine, or fully charged all the process workshop? Does it have an impact on the price?
vs: No, there is no such marking. However, our artists who are themselves printed and etched the stones for lithography, signed and named prints autolithography. Know that xylography and linocut artists print themselves, because this process is not that complicated. With etching more difficult, but I know that in 1950-90-х, the authors tried to poison boards and print.
AI: What are the procedure for control over circulation? Or this issue remains solely on the conscience of the artist and the Studio? Why should you trust the buyer?
vs: we Have no control does not exist, therefore and impressions is very much. I saw the once famous and popular etchings, printed by the authors completely "bald" boards — horror! In the West, all exactly: 20 — means 20, and the form is destroyed.
AI: Sometimes the draw graphics sold in unsatisfactory condition — for example, with mold, including black-серыми points. As far as the rescue procedure of this subject? And what advice would you give to a novice collector: to communicate with those instances or shun them?
vs: Mold — is very serious. Better not to buy, and then the entire collection will infect.
Black-серые point — is dead mold, it appears. Worse than pink mold — she was alive. However, not more common mold, and foxing (Fox spots) — yellow-бурые spots on the paper. These spots are of bacterial origin, and they are easily removed. It must be done by a professional restorer, and the cost of such operations with the prints (I emphasize: with prints) is low.
Another thing — adding breaks, replacement of the losses (torn corners), duplicating, removing the grease and difficult stains of organic origin, retouching. This is a lengthy process, harmful to the health of the restorer, and therefore more expensive. But as a rule we try in determining the price of work guided by the values and the cost of the prints. Sometimes it's sad that for design work people are willing to pay much more than in its high-quality restoration.
AI: what in General should pay attention to a novice collector lottery charts before purchasing your Board?
vs: how this work you like and fits your budget. No more no criteria and should not be.
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- 2. Damien Hirst$100 million
- 3. Constantin Brâncuși$71 million
- 4. Amedeo Modigliani$70,7 million
- 5. Jeff Koons$58,4 million
- 6. Unknown artist$57.2 million
- 7. Henri Matisse$48,8 million
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- 9. Henry Moore$30,1 million
- 10. Willem de Kooning$29,28 million
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- 12. Unknown artist$28,6 million
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- 15. Alexander Calder$25,9 million
- 16. Unknown artist$23,826 million
- 17. David Smith$23,816 million
- 18. Yves Klein$22 million
- 19. Auguste Rodin$20,41 million
- 20. Unknown artist$19,1 million
- 21. Edgar Degas$18,82 million
- 22. Maurizio Cattelan$17,19 million
- 23. Unknown artist$16,88 million
- 24. Takashi Murakami$15,16 million
- 25. Donald Judd$14,16 million
- 26. Unknown artist$11,64 million
- 27. Antonio Canova$11,5 million
- 28. Bruce Nauman$9,9 million
- 29. Aristide Maillol$8,32 million
- 30. Unknown artist$8,146 million
- 31. Cy Twombly$7,7 million
- 32. Julio Gonzalez$7,45 million
- 33. Marino Marini$7,15 million
- 34. Urs Fischer$6,8 million