Images of women & women-художницы at exhibitions of the Russian Museum in Malaga
ARTinvestment.RU 28 февраля 2019
Branch timing in the Spanish city of Malaga has opened three exhibitions: "Saints, Queens, and workers. The image of women in Russian art", "Russian artist. At the intersection of tradition and avant-garde" and "Graphics Russian artists from the collection of Christine Gmurzynska"
European viewers can not only admire the beauty and harmony of female images, but to see how from the middle Ages to the twentieth century changed the role of women and the attitude in Russian society and how its appearance, character and activities was influenced by social events, fashion, literature, art.
Annual exposition "the Saints, Queen, workers. The image of women in Russian art" (February 26, 2019 — on 27 February 2020) is about 180 works of art XV — XX centuries from the collection of the Russian Museum: painting, sculpture, icons, costumes. The exhibition includes masterpieces by Vladimir Borovikovsky, Alexei Venetsianov, Pavel Fedotov, Ivan Kramskoy, Vasily Surikov, Alexander Golovin, Boris Kustodiev, Konchalovsky, and others.
Women's images in Russian art — is and the first images of the saints and martyrs in the icons and frescoes, and a magnificent ceremonial portraits of Russian empresses, and images of peasant women, and portraits of smart and independent Russian women enthusiastically develop new activities and in the end changed his fate and the fate of Russia. The exhibited works of the second half of the nineteenth century clearly describe the circle of women's lives, analyze its main stages: childhood and adolescence, betrothal and marriage, the birth of children and the loss of her husband, their grandchildren, sometimes — lonely old age. In the focus of interest turned women's work in all its diversity, whether you are working seamstress or embroiderer, laundresses or paper girl.
art of Russia were inspired by the same ideas, and literature, so female characters are arranged in the obvious Parallels with the literary characters and stories of famous Russian writers. The woman question became more relevant, especially aspects related to work and education, motherhood, and family law. It is these issues that lay at the basis of novels of Leo Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenev, Nikolai Chernyshevsky. Society is not indifferent to the question of women's freedom. At the exhibition you can see images of the girl students Bestuzhev courses, which gave impetus to the development of women's education, and later workers received equal rights with men after the February revolution of 1917. Meanwhile, in the late XIX — the beginning of the XX century the focus of attention of artists on the-прежнему remained feminine appearance, often — unusual, sometimes exotic beauty and fancy toilets. Female portrait became one of the leading genres in the visual arts, and the artists moved on to, in the words of critics, "the search "ugly beauty"". Paramount was valued individuality, in other words, personality. Complex relationships were formed the new government with the genrenu, which was reflected in the works of artists of 1920-40-х years. Despite the relief in this regard that occurred in the late 1950-х, even in 1970-е images of nudity bad within the canons of socialist realism was perceived as a real challenge. The image of Russian women has remained controversial and sometimes hard-to-find in the works of 1970-80-х completing the exposure.
the exhibition "Russian artist. At the intersection of tradition and avant-garde" (February 26, 2019 – September 8, 2020), reflecting the contribution of women to the development of national art 142 paintings, sculpture, decorative-прикладного art XIX — XXI centuries Among them — works of famous Russian artists Mary Bashkirtsevoy, Zinaida Serebryakova, Natalia Goncharova, Anna Golubkina, Olga Rozanova, Vera Mukhina.
the Era of transformation initiated by Peter the Great gave impetus to the development of the national secular art. However, in the Imperial Academy of arts, founded in 1757 in St. Petersburg, women were not accepted until the mid-1840-х years. Many children of the nobility were taught from childhood to draw, but professional art classes for them was considered a shameful thing. Meanwhile, to have survived still life pastel "Flowers" of the Russian Empress Maria Feodorovna, inspired by the Dutch tradition of the SEVENTEENTH century, which can be seen at the exhibition. Since 1842, the St. Petersburg drawing school for the Academy of arts there was a special Women's section. The new trend 1870-80-х years was the dissatisfaction of women to their unequal position in the Russian society, the desire to get an education abroad. In the exhibition one can see works of Mary Bashkirtsevoy, artist, who became famous thanks to the participation in the exhibitions of the Paris Salon in 1880-е. Bashkirtseva scenes from modern life, delicate in mood landscapes, but the best independent character of the author, concern the equality of women is reflected in the portrait work. The artist became famous in France, in Russia, however, became known only a few years after his death. 1910-е years, especially their second half, given the complex picture of development of national art and the active participation of women. Freedom of a different sort that is presented as the achievements of the revolution, was picked up by feminists, the meaning of which was great since the end of the XIX century. In Russian art entered a galaxy of educated and comprehensively gifted artists such as Olga Rozanova, Nadezhda Lermontov, Liubov Popova — of painters, graphic artists, poets, theatre artists, educators, fashion designers and textile designers holidays.
Inventive in the search for a new language of art was Natalia Goncharova, in all your endeavors supported Mikhail Larionov. Flashed brightly for the outrageous avant-garde exhibitions Nadezhda Udaltsova and Alexandra Exter. In fact, the artist were the initiators of the creation of the first Russian avant-garde of society "Union of youth".
the Neoclassical trends of Russian art 1910-х years — is as typical as the development of avant-garde searches. The brightest representative of this direction Zinaida Serebriakova that's when he created his best paintings. At the exhibition you can see the work of the former pupils of the art school of Elizabeth Zvantseva arts in St. Petersburg: Lermontovo Hope, Faith Zhukova, Sophia Dymshits-Толстой.
1920-е years represented in art as a contradictory trends picture as the previous decade. Artists worked, despite the hunger and devastation that prevailed in the country in the days of the Civil war. Along with experiments in the search form, painters worked on the image of the "new man", public, industrial and agricultural topics. Abstract painting in the early 1920-х-прежнему was attractive to young people, especially for students of Kazimir Malevich and Mikhail Matiushin — such as the sisters Maria and Ksenia Ender. Liubov Popova, whose works are represented in the exhibition, like a number of her colleagues-конструктивистов, in the early 1920-х abandoned easel painting in favor of "production" work needed for citizens of a socialist society things. To its established projects of ladies ' dresses reflected her experience of the artist avant-garde. To the achievements of the Soviet fashion of those years also belong to the projects of Alexandra Exter.
In 1930-е artist shared the fate of their colleagues-мужчин. The intervention of the Communist party in the Affairs of art had a detrimental effect on its development. The new government liked the naturalistic realism and in some cases — idealizing the reality of Neoclassicism. Dissent was persecuted and condemned not reconciled themselves to the situation underground.
Poststreptococcal beginning peculiar to expressive painting in a series of self-portraits of Maria Kazanskaya. The loneliness, the fragility of inner peace is palpable in the works by Tatiana Glebova, follower of Pavel Filonov. As a symbol of the coming harsh times perceived it created a desolate landscape.
In 1950-60-е some of the artist had already begun a bold experiment — long before the perestroika time. Such, for example, a religious non-objective triptych's Helconinae "Composition with a cross" sculpture, presented at the exhibition. But the heyday of unofficial art came later.
In 1980-90-е years women — sculptors, painters and graphic — was actively represented in art unions, at exhibitions and in publications. Natalia Nesterova and Olga Bulgakova stood metaphors of their works. Tatyana Nazarenko and worked as a painter and as the author of the sculptures. In the early 1990-х appeared in the series "Russian design" Olga Florensky, cofounder of the St. Petersburg art group "Mitki".
In 2000-е years, the number of participants in the artistic process in Russia has not decreased. Range of topics, styles and manners used by artists in today's Russia, it is extremelyvaried and their paintings, sculptures, and installations are exhibited in showrooms around the world.
the exposition "Graphics Russian artists from the collection of Christine Gmurzynska" (February 26, 2019 — September 8, 2020) included 26 works of famous representatives of Russian art 1900-30-х. Among them Elena Guro, Sonia Delaunay, Olga Rozanova, Liubov Popova, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Natalia Goncharova, Alexandra Exter.
Antonina Gmurzynska (1926-1986) was one of the first Western collectors who have shown deep and serious interest in Russian art of the first decades of the twentieth century. Her collection was well known to the connoisseurs of art, and works from its structure is often exhibited in different countries, been published in books, catalogues and albums. The business started Antonina Gmurzynska, for several decades, continues her daughter Christina. Over the years the collection has grown and has been enriched with works that were not available in the 1950-70-е years, when Russian art was collected Antonina Gmurzynska.
"Women-художницы in Russia" is a special section in this collection. However, in the collection of Christina Gmurzynska is rarely found in other collections of works by such artists as Elena Guro, Maria and Ksenia Ender, Anastasia, Ahtyrka. Some of the artist, for example, Antonina Sofronova, represented by a series of works, famous single graphic sheets in other collections. Many works from the collection Gmurzynska open the unknown pages of the creative biography of the famous artists. So, in the last few years of his life Kazimir Malevich worked on the design of architectural structures. One of his loyal students and assistants were Anna Leporskaya. With her Malevich created a project for the design of the red theatre in Leningrad (1931-1932). The idea of the artist was in a completely new abstract approach to decorating public spaces. The design of the red theatre Gmurzynska from the collection together with works from the Russian Museum collection — critical illustrate how would look like the interior if the project was implemented.
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