The book "Moscow collector, was published in the series' Lives of Outstanding People"
ARTinvestment.RU   12 февраля 2011

Publishing House "Young Guard released a new book critic NN Semenova, dedicated SI Shchukin and Ivan Morozov and Ostroukhov

Earlier this year, published by "Young Guard" saw the light of a new book critic NN Semenova "Moscow collectors».

Semenova Yu . Moscow collectors: SI Shchukin and IA Morozov, Ostroukhov: Three fates, three stories hobbies /Natalia Semenova. - M.: Young Guard, 2010. - 403 [13]: ill. - (Life of Famous People: Ser. BIOGRAPHIES., Vol. 1275).

Ivan Ivan Abramovich Morozov. Portrait by Valentin Serov

If you do not take into account the royal court and aristocracy, then collect in Russia started merchants. Tretiakovs, Shchukin and Morozov, Ostroukhov - a classic set of Moscow. Pavel Tretyakov in this group stands out as his gallery. Name Tretyakov had never been hushed, and the Soviet readers and viewers even got the impression that besides Pavel Mikhailovich collectors in Russia did not exist. But they were, and quite a few - in Moscow alone, more than a dozen, including Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin and Ivan Abramovich Morozov Ilya Semenovich Ostroukhova.

life of these three Moscow collectors could fit into one book. To write it was not easy. By Shchukin left several pages, cards and letters to his brother Matisse. By Morozov - account for the picture, but from Ostroukhova, whose name is far less known than the tandem Shchukin - Morozov - a huge archive of more than a thousand letters and drafts, plus all sorts of little things, until the accounts to buy brushes and bouquets of flowers.

Our heroes were familiar with each other and even were in the distant, but related, that the Moscow merchants are not surprising. Biographies of many ways typical of the Russian merchant dynasties. Moscow homeowners from families of Old Believers, refers to labor as to obedience; Shchukin - from Bohr shopkeepers, Morozova - redeemed from the will of the serfs. They both studied abroad, knew the language, loved music. Both have inherited his father's entrepreneurial spirit and increase the capital, one of - trading house IV Shchukin and his sons, the other - the Association of Tver Manufactory.

lived in Moscow in the neighborhood: Shchukin in Znamenka, at the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour and Morozov - the other side of the boulevard, on Prechistenka.

Ostroukhov merchant's son, too, and almost the same age Shchukin, but baked onto the rich merchants only to thirty years, having married the daughter of P . Botkin, cousin Shchukin.

Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin. 1915. Portrait by Dmitry Melnikov Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin. 1915. Portrait by Dmitry Melnikov

SI Shchukin was seventeen years older Morozova, but looked young, especially compared to overweight Ivan Abramovich. Poor health, besides a strong stuttering, Sergei Ivanovich raised character: gymnastics, training, vegeteryanstvo . Buying patterns both began almost simultaneously, with the difference in five years, not more. In Paris, went through the same galleries and exhibitions, but found something of themselves of their interest in the artist. Even the number of pictures, which bought everyone was equal.

Shchukin money is not littered, and tried to pay with interest on the capital. Morozov was several times richer: Thousands of workers in factories, rather than just buying and selling textiles. Being consumed at the pictures with ease, the Parisian art dealer Ambroise Vollard about him and said: "The Russian, who is not traded. However, receipts Morozov traders kept to the last piece, so to calculate how much it cost collection may be accurate: 1,410,665 francs (for one ruble was given forty francs). This - apart from the Russian "half" (rolls over three hundred works), as Morozov was buying more and contemporary Russian painting, and in commercial quantities. But that is another story.

Ivan Abramovich Morozov. Portrait by Konstantin Korovin

Ivan Abramovich Morozov did not let myself to strangers. Museum planned as an experienced curator, knowing that he needed from Cezanne was "blue" and the landscape of Matisse desirable landscape. Was willing to wait for coveted work for years and specifically left for a picture of the free space on the wall. Listened to the opinions of others, trust artists: from the Russian - Valentin Serov , but from the French - Maurice Denis.

Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin paintings selected only himself. Contemporary Russian artists did not buy, but the mansion blew willingly. Artistic youth reacted to what he saw in the mansion in Grand Znamenskoye lane "as the Eskimos on the gramophone," as Prince Sherbatov. Materialized result Shchukinsk enlightenment - the art of the first Russian Avant-Garde: Art School students write a Cézanne, "matissnichali, crushed form a la Picasso ... Shchukin talked about the paintings with the same zeal with which they bought. Seeing the picture, had a nervous thrill and excitement, dreaming at all costs to recover it. In short, hypnosis or magic, "he explained" the case of Picasso. " Often he had to struggle even to himself - he knew in advance what would be called crazy when he brought Derain and Rousseau. Not surprisingly, the Benoit buy matissovskih called "Dance" and "Music" "deed».

Ilya Semenovich Ostroukhov - the figure is somewhat different, but the identity of its own outstanding. Own business, he did not and was satisfied with his wife's, sitting in the office all the time, it did not take - in the factories and fairs had to visit often. By profession Ilya Ostroukhov was an artist, although formal education is not received, by vocation - a collector and muzeestroitel. Besides its own collection, he drove the Tretyakov. Fourteen years was the main man in the gallery who tried to turn into a national museum of Russian art, and in his Trubnikovsky lovingly assembled a museum, personal taste. Museums collect personal taste and the Shchukin brothers - Peter and Dmitri Ivanovich (the fate of which we mention only in passing), but Ostroukhov did it with an incredible temperament, enthusiasm and genuine passion, because unlike them, nature was artistically gifted. Ilya Semenovich bought French and Russian painting schedule, oriental bronze and antique glass, lacquer, Chinese and Russian icons. By the way, it counted for merit opening artistic phenomenon of Russian icons, which until Ostroukhova valued quite different than the actual paintings, dignity. Character Ilya Semenovich was cantankerous, often he liked to show off and play the merchant, "justifying its Zamoskvoretsky origin." However, despite the intransigence, moodiness and categorically judgments, attracted others - knowledge, taste, understanding. His conclusions resignedly believe: Ostroukhov had no right to be wrong, so his errors became a sensation.

Perova Since the beginning of World War II changed the lives of our heroes. Borders were closed, and about shopping in Europe, where they annually went in search of masterpieces, it was necessary to forget. In July 1918, nationalized major industries and at the end of the year declared national property private collections. Shchukin not stand first. In August 1918, Sergei Ivanovich disappeared from Moscow (Kiev train, fake passports, a doll with sewn diamonds), leaving the gallery in the care of his daughter and son in law. Frost lasted for ten months longer, unable to part with their museum. Endured when the gallery was nationalized, but when asked to vacate the premises, could not resist. Morozov had disappeared in the spring of 1919. Loss of the collection proved fatal. Shchukin resistance Ivan Abramovich did not have: to survive suicide of two sons, brother and wife's death, is in general very few people had the strength. Morozov had died the summer of 1921 during the procedures in Carlsbad, where we arrived to restore health. He had turned fifty.

SI Shchukin and IA Morozov survived for fifteen years and died in 1936 in Paris, having had to rewrite his will, drawn up in 1907. He no longer wished to give his museum Moscow, and wrote to all the property to his wife and children. Certified by a notary of Paris will the Russian Federation does not wish to be taken into account, since the restitution of our laws do not recognize, but French law does not recognize the confiscation without compensation. Unresolved conflict. Morozov, incidentally, in 1921, also made a will, that all wills to his wife, however, in contrast to the Shchukin, a desire to present a collection of the city he has never expressed his.

Shchukin and Morozov had emigrated, and Ostroukhov stayed. He was appointed director of the Museum of icons and paintings behalf Ostroukhova, the decree so straight and wrote: "You are appointed director of the Museum of your name." Dali's salary, personal pension, and two rooms in his own mansion. For the sake of the museum Ilya Semenovich was ready to demolish all: agreed to outweigh the paintings, he bought the tickets, pretending that the visitors no end. After the death of Ostroukhova in 1929, the museum in his name instantly liquidated, and its collection, as it was decided to express, "sprayed" have been attributed to numerous museums.

year earlier, in 1928 , Schukinskaya collection merged with Morozov into a single museum of modern Western art, which, twenty years later disbanded. Paintings in a hurry divided between the Hermitage and the Pushkin Museum: Resolution on the Elimination relegated to this procedure two weeks. If it were possible to redistribute all over again, the historical justice has been done at least in part: The Museum of St. Petersburg would have Shchukin, and Moscow - Morozov. Or - on the contrary. During the division meeting in 1948 of collectors and no one remembered. Both were dead, and even the initials "u" and "M", the certificates instead of the names of former owners are long gone from the catalogs.

At the end of the twentieth century in Russia there is a new Russian bourgeoisie , wonderfully reminiscent of a rich early twentieth century an incredible love of luxury and desire to experience what possible pleasure. Holders of enormous capital, as a rule, people with quirks and eccentricities, but despite the extravagance of actions, most of them can adequately dispose of their share. Frenzy and incredible undertaking Russian rich early twentieth century contributed to the creation in Russia of the cultural atmosphere in which there is an unprecedented rise of the arts and sciences turn of the century. Current collectors are very similar to their predecessors. With the same all-consuming passion are his passion and dream to become great collectors, and are afraid of "spraying" collected, no matter whether their own children or the state.

worldwide on labels under the picture can be read not only the author's name, wrote it, but the name of the person or agency by which this or that object was at the museum. In the halls of the Hermitage with the French paintings of the late XIX - early XX century such labels hang for many years. Great collectors should be proud. Someday museums that store the icons, paintings and sculpture collected by the heroes of this book, too, will come to this.

Natalia Semenova
Moscow, 2009

Source: the text and illustrations provided by N. Semenova, artinvestment.ru



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