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Выдача займов под залог картин и скульптур XIX-XXI веков

Первый профессиональный сервис по выдаче займов под залог произведений искусства

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Внимание! ARTInvestment.ru ищет картины этого художника для продажи. Kalmakov Nicolay Konstantinovich
1873–1955  

KALMAKOV Nikolay Konstantinovich

January 23, 1873 (Nervi, Italy) — February 2, 1955 (Chelles, near Paris)

Painter, book artist, scene-designer


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Калмаков, Николай Константинович

Biography

KALMAKOV Nikolay Konstantinovich

January 23, 1873 (Nervi, Italy) — February 2, 1955 (Chelles, near Paris)

Painter, book artist, scene-designer

Nikolay Kalmakov was born to a family of Russian general and Italian; he spent his childhood in Italian Riviera.

He did not receive any art education; he studied painting and anatomy by himself in Italy, where he returned after graduation from the faculty of law at St. Petersburg University (according to other sources of information — the Imperial School of Jurisprudence) in 1895.

 

In 1900 Kalmakov visited Russia again; at first he lived in Moscow, then in 1903 he moved to St. Petersburg. The artist made his debut in early 1900s, when he began to participate in the exhibitions of different art societies and groups, but formally he did not join any of them. He created fantastic painting (Black Virgins, Sakya Muni, Head of Astarte) under the influence of ancient Oriental motifs, German romanticism and mysticism of the beginning of the 20th century. Due to occultism, erotic symbolism and ornamentality, Kalmakov became one of the bright representatives of Russian symbolism.

In 1912–1917 Kalmakov was close to the group Mir Iskusstva (“World of Art”); he took part in the exhibitions of the group. Due to this group Kalmakov was interested in the art of European representatives of Art nouveau, first of all in the works by Aubrey Beardsley, whose style of painting had an influence upon drawings and scene design by Kalmakov.

In 1900s–1910s Kalmakov showed his works at the exhibitions of the Union of Russian Artists (1908), Moscow Association of Artists (1900), the group Treugolnik (“Triangle”), the associations Modern tendencies in art (1908) and Impressionists (1909). In 1913 the first personal exhibition of the artist was held in St. Petersburg (under the Society for the Encouragements of the Arts); the exhibition drew a wide response in the press (both enthusiastic reviews, and scathing criticism). The Kalmakov’s manner of painting of that time was characterized by ornamental refinement, love for relief strokes, silver paint and gilding (self-portraits as St. John the Baptist and Louis XIV). In 1915 he painted symbolic diptych Avenging Angel and St. George the Victorious.
In 1908–1916 Kalmakov worked as a scene-designer; he designed 11 performances in various theatres of St. Petersburg and Moscow. The most significant productions were Salome by Oscar Wilde (1908, V. F. Komissarzhevskaia’s theatre, staging by N. Evreinov), Anathema by Leonid Andreev (1909, New drama theatre, staging by A. Sanin), Judith by F. Hebbel (1909, V. F. Komissarzhevskaia’s theatre), El Gran Duke de Moscovia by Lope de Vega (1911, Starinniy teatr (“Old Theatre”)), Life is a Dream by Pedro Calderon (1914, Chamber theatre, staging by A. Zonov), the first puppet performance in Russia Power of Love and Magic by Tirso de Molina (1916, Starinniy teatr (“Old Theatre”), together with M. Dobuzhinsky). After 1916 Kalmakov did not return to scene design again, except unsuccessful attempt together with N. Evreinov to stage a production Salome in 1925 in emigration. In his scene and costume designs, the artist expressed his rich imagination and love for refined and bright colors. Kalmakov was among the first who began to create emotional costume-images and to use local color as principal means of expression (thereby he became one of the forerunners of minimalism in scene design).

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