СОВРЕМЕННОЕ РОССИЙСКОЕ ИСКУССТВО

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The exhibition "Piero della Francesca" in the Hermitage
ARTinvestment.RU   10 декабря 2018

The works of one of the most famous artists of the XV century, Piero della Francesca art collections from Italy, Spain, Portugal, the UK show in the picket hall of the Winter Palace

the Exhibition provides a rare opportunity to meet art masters, as the works of Piero della Francesca are not represented in the Russian Museum collections. Most of the major works of the artist in Italy, in places not frequented by tourists: Urbino, Arezzo, Borgo San Sepolcro.

"the Opening of" Piero della Francesca was only in the mid-nineteenth century. Prior to this his works were often attributed to other masters or scattered in provincial towns of Italy, did not attract special attention. In our days the interest in the work of Piero della Francesca is great, and the artist himself is regarded as a key figure of the Italian Quattrocento.

Piero della Francesca (1412 (?) — 1492) was born in a small village (later city) of Borgo San Sepolcro. Worked in different centres in Italy — Florence, Ferrara, Rimini, Rome, Urbino, Perugia, but always preferred to return to his native Borgo San Sepolcro or in Arezzo, in the province of which that town was located. Piero played an important role in the life of the Borgo, he was repeatedly elected to various public positions. In a government building, he wrote the fresco of "the Resurrection of Christ", which became a symbol of the city.

Young Piero became acquainted with the best achievements of painting, sculpture and architecture of his time, when, in 1439, came to Florence, which, as in the previous century, remained the most progressive center of Italy in the field of culture. Acquired by the artist's profound knowledge of drawing, composition, perspective allowed him to go on its own unique way, staying true to the methods and principles developed at an early stage of creativity.

Piero della Francesca worked in the courts of many Italian rulers, including the Pope. Around 1450, Piero was in Ferrara, where he could get acquainted with the Dutch paintings, in particular works by Rogier van der Weyden, invited by the Marquis Lionello d'este. With the Dutch masters he could meet and at the court of the Duke of Urbino Federico da Montefeltro. From northerners, Piero took over the accuracy in the transfer of nature and new to Italy the technique of oil painting.

the Top of the monumental painting of Pierrot and, more broadly, all of the Quattrocento — cycle of frescoes of "the History of the True cross" painted by master in the Church of St. Francis, Arezzo, between 1458 and 1466 years. Never before in art of the Renaissance did not appear similar to the cycle, marked by such clarity and compliance of all forms to each other, unusual colors and a clear perspective. The exhibition shows a film on "the History of the True cross", prepared by the Italian documentary.

Piero della Francesca was also a portraitist. The names of the customers of wizard not always known, but chief among them, no doubt — Federico da Montefeltro. Piero has created a magnificent double portrait of Federico and his wife with allegorical scenes of the triumphs of the Ducal couple on the reverse side of the panels (Uffizi gallery, Florence). Federico was not only the ruler of Urbino, but also one of the most successful condottieri of Italy. Mercenary generals — phenomenon is typical for the Italian Renaissance.

the Idea of such people gives and the "Portrait of sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta" (Louvre, Paris). When Pierrot in the early 1450-х years, wrote his portrait direction of sigismondo was at the Zenith of fame. Turn models strictly in profile is inspired by Piero medals. In the development of a new genre of the era — portrait — is important to the Renaissance masters began medallic art and monuments of antiquity. At the Louvre the portrait of the ruler of Rimini presents it is in this perspective that allowed us to identify the most typical features of the model: pretty face with a tough exterior testifies to the indomitable will and power. Direction of sigismondo dressed in a luxurious suit, but without ornaments, because it is fully inherent in simplicity and restraint.

the same compositional scheme Piero took advantage, capturing the character of the son of Federico da Montefeltro, Gvidobaldo. This portrait is kept in the Museum Thyssen-Борнемисы, Madrid. The charming baby with fine features and blond hair, shining Golden in the light, it is difficult to predict the future Duke-тирана, condottiere and however the customer of Raphael.

In Borgo San Sepolcro to the monastery of St. Augustine by Piero della Francesca executed a large altar. Central Board of it has survived, four side flaps are dispersed in different collections, three of them managed to show at the exhibition: "Saint Augustine" (national Museum of ancient art, Lisbon), "the Archangel Michael" (national gallery, London) and "Saint Nicholas Tolentine" (Museo Poldi-Пеццоли, Milan). All figures in this same scale, each stands steadfast as a rock, regardless of who is in front of us — Bishop, warrior or monk. Portraying Augustine, Piero showed talent as a miniaturist: the mitre and dalmatic of the Saint, decorated with embroideries with scenes of gospel legends, played with such feeling of confidence that Piero can compete with the Dutch masters in their ability to convey the materiality of things. St. Nicholas of Tolentino is so individual that no doubt the artist could pose and the monk that attracted his attention extraordinary fat figure and expressive face. The Archangel Michael is not so much a warrior — "standard-bearer of the heavenly host", as courtly knight studded with jewels, in which the master embodies your own idea of perfect youthful beauty.

Painting Piero alien emotionalism and dynamics. It embodies the main principle of the Renaissance: a man full of beauty and dignity, — center of the universe and the world around himharmonious. The undisputed masterpiece of Piero — "Madonna of Senigallia" (Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino) — belongs to the later period of activity of the artist. The title of the painting comes from the village to the Church which it was written. "Madonna of Senigallia" can be regarded as the quintessence of the art of Piero. In particular, reflecting the main principles of his art: mathematical form perception, precise proportionality in the ratio figures, objects, space, high degree of generalization, the consistent solution of the lighting problem. Lovely and sophisticated colours: the master prefers bright, cheerful tones.

In the last years of his life from-за blindness Piero della Francesca was unable to work as a painter and was engaged in theoretical research; of his treatises on mathematics and geometry, should be assessed along with the merits in this area of Leon Battista Alberti, Luca Pacioli, Leonardo da Vinci.

Piero della Francesca was one of the discoverers of the laws of perspective. Among the works of Piero della Francesca — is a unique manuscript, "On perspective in painting" from the collection of the "Palazzo Magnani", which is the basis of understanding all perspectives and nature of visual illusions Renaissance.

the curator of the exhibition — Tatiana Kirillovna Kustodiev, a leading researcher of Department of Western European art State Hermitage, candidate of art history.

Source: hermitagemuseum.org



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