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A brief history of collecting. From Venetian Republic to the XX century

The second part of our material under heading "Tips for beginning collectors." Today we will talk about how to create the culture of collecting in Europe for centuries — and in what form approached the beginning of the XX century

In previous we put an end to the historical moment of the emergence of the largest corporate collection in the world — treasures of the Vatican. At the same time the Catholic Church was the main customer of European artists for many centuries to come, preventing the development of secular painting in favor of the religious. However, some public education received some indulgence from the Pope, who until then turned a blind eye to such free-thinking in the interests of replenishment of the Vatican Treasury.

One of such formations were the Republic of Venice — of the state, which in the heyday of the also owned most of the coastal areas of modern Italy and Croatia, and the island of Crete. The emergence of statistics, accounting and banking, customs declarations and the development of logistics, sea linking Asia with Europe, — is all about the Republic of Venice. And from Venice were regularly dispatched ships to European pilgrims to the Holy Land — and for the sake of this thread that increase the influence of Catholicism on the masses, the Vatican agreed to give the Republic a special status in the first place tax. Being a trading platform, which receives goods from all of opened at that time in the world, Venice turned into a huge market — and not by accident the prototype of the fair art first appeared on the Rialto bridge, where they sold the pigments for making paints. The local elite began to form of imported exotic objects of the meeting, they were called "collections only". Ostrich eggs, manuscripts, relics of saints, cloth and card were bought mixed and became a part of the home interior.

One of the first known story of Italians who showed a selective approach to collecting, was the poet Petrarch. The genius of the sonnets collected decent even by today's standards the collection of coins and books, as well as determined approach to the formation of the "studiolo" — separate rooms for storing collections of objects. The mainland of modern Italy by that time was divided between the cities-государствами governed by powerful family clans: the Visconti, the Gonzaga, the Medici, the sforzas, etc. Families were encouraged by archaeological excavations, with the result that the collection was replenished not only brought the exhibits, and a sculpture of late Antiquity. The most significant room-студиоло in the fifteenth century gathered Isabella d'este family of Gonzaga for the first time emphasis was placed on painting and some works of the Marquis specially ordered from Giovanni Bellini and Leonardo da Vinci. However, the artists did not responded to the letter d'este.

Fashion on the "studiolo" in the XVI century, was transferred to Central Europe where he received the title "cabinets of curiosities" (Cabinet of curiosities paid in the UK and Wunderkammer in the principalities of Germany). Along with chaotic collections began to form a thematic collection. Unlike Italy, for storage and visual display of collections were established clinics — wooden showcase with shelves, with sizes from small boxes to entire rooms. Superiority in the creation of inlaid cabinets took Flanders: furniture craftsmen of Antwerp and Amsterdamserved European collectors. Spread in Flanders and the Dutch Protestant revolution had weakened the influence of the Vatican, which allowed in the XVII century to appear secular art, and with it the fashion of the masters of Flemish painting, among local collectors. Then the first catalogue of the same collection: it was created by David Teniers-младший, a court, curator of collections of the Habsburg dynasty.

the Next significant stage of formation of the collectibles, as well as the emergence of a professional approach to the formation of Assembly was the creation of the first public museums. In 1753 opened British Museum in London, its permanent exhibition is formed of three donated private collections: stuffed animals and items of island life, religious manuscripts and secular books. Since the main task of the Museum was initially seen to surprise and delight, the collection has been shuffled through the halls in a chaotic manner. To do this, established a special post of curator of the Museum involved in the shaping of the exhibitions. It is worth mentioning that among the values of the English verb curate is present and "take away": on the supervisor eventually began to fall search feature exhibits for the collection.

In France, where a year later after the French revolution (1792) was opened to the public, the Louvre, the position of the curator was called for-другому: conservateur, that is, Keeper of the collections. The second difference was the educational approach of the Museum: for the first time works from nationalized private collections were grouped according to the areas of art arranged in chronological order of creation, from hall to hall. By the way, at the end of the French revolution happened and the first sale of the famous collection of the auction. In 1792, in London, Christie's sold the collection of the Duke of Orleans, who joined the Jacobins, and has given up his title and part of the tangible assets. In today's language, the collection had to be sold from-за of incompatibility of posts.

XIX century in the history of collecting can be called "century of fashion". In the first third of the century, the United Kingdom and continental Europe was infected by picking up Antiques, second third passed under the sign of Orientalism; fashion originated in the aristocratic families, and later she was picked up by the middle class. In the late 1860-х years it's fascination with the works of artists-импрессионистов, and a significant role in the creation of artificial demand belonged to the then art-дилерам — the Marshal (from the French marchand, the merchant). In 1871, The British Art Journal explained the unprecedented demand for the impressionism that "it soared prices." World center for the sale of a painting in those years was Paris, and the place of the transaction — auction house Hôtel Drouot (today the brand brings together 60 Druot auction houses and holds up to 3 thousand trades per year). It is interesting to note that the rabid popularity of impressionism and the Hôtel Drouot is connected with the figure of the Emperor Napoleon III at the time he visited the "Salon Les Miserables" where she exhibited the Impressionists, and the first auction of the Paris auction house.

for the First time his private collection outside of France in 1886 was taken for exposing Paul Durand-Рюэль, regarded as the founder of the professional art-дилерства. Exhibitionreceived rave reviews from the press and the attention of the local elite, who appreciated the influence of art on the masses and took the tool into service. As you can guess, host city for the exhibition were new-Йорк. In sum, it predetermined the development of the collectibles in the next, XX century, which will be discussed in the final material.

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