Айвазовский И.К.
Шишкин И.И.
Маковский А.В.
Маковский В.Е.
Кончаловский П.П.
Фальк Р.Р.
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Нестеров М.В.
Плавинский Д.П.
Бенуа А.Н.
Немухин В.Н.
Серов В.А.
Зверев А.Т.
Саврасов А.К.

Gorshman Mendel Khaimovich
Pseudonyms,autonyms and aliases: Mikhail, Efremovich, Efimovich 1902–1972

GORSHMAN Michael Efimovich (Mendel Haimovich)

November 1902, (Novoborisov, Belorussia) — January 2, 1972 (Moscow)

Graphic artist, painter, book illustrator

First professional knowledge Gorshman gained in Kostroma, where he studied painting, drawing and wood engraving at the Free Art Studios under N. N. Kupreyanov and N. S. Iznar (1920–1921). At the same time he worked as a decorator of the military hospital club.

In 1922 Gorshman moved to Moscow and entered the Higher State Artistic and Technical Workshops (VKhUTEMAS) — the Higher Art Technical Institute (VKhUTEIN, 1922–1929), where he studied lithography under N. N. Kupreyanov, P. V. Miturich and V. A. Favorsky. As his diploma work he presented a series of six colored autolithographs Shtetl (under he guidance of N. N. Kupreyanov), based on his trip to Belorussia. In 1929 critic D. Aranovich wrote: “The P. Miturich and N. Kupreyanov’s student, M. Gorshman came under stronger influence of the latter. Not so much in terms of lithography techniques, but in terms of style. The most appropriate artistic formula for M. Gorshman is expressionism. His scenes of the everyday life of Shtetl are often full of painfully oppressive mood of poverty and lack of culture which becomes later the foundation of superstition. Fortunately, however, the range of feelings of young artist extends further. In early M. Gorshman autolithographs along with expressionistic satire, there is a lot of vivacity and cheerful humor. In the end, in latest works the search of the monumental and decorative forms is outlined.” After graduation from VKhUTEIN, Gorshman acquired a profession of artist and technologist of the printing industry.

Since 1924 Gorshman began to publish his works in newspapers and magazines, such as Bezbozhnik u Stanka (“Atheist at the Machine”, 1926–1930), Iskusstvo v Massy (“Art into the Masses”, 1929), Krasnaya Niva (“Red Niva”, 1929) and others. Gorshman admitted in his autobiographical notes that his work as a graphic artist had begun in magazines and developed mainly in the book. Even during study at the VKhUTEIN, Gorshman on the instructions of the magazine Bezbozhnik u Stanka created sketches at the Trekhgorny manufacture.

Gorshman designed books: Fire by S. Marshak (1925), Vegetable oil by I. Kipnis (1928), Sasha’s puppies by S. Shervinsky (1928), Miracle of St. Laritsiya by O. Guryan (1930), Cavalry by I. Babel (1933), Son of a shoemaker by S. Gecht (1931), Julis by M. Daniel (1933), Story about red Motele by I. Utkin (1934), Essays about seminary by N. Pomyalovsky (1934) and others. He also illustrated works of classical and modern Jewish literature: Sholom Aleichem, I.-L. Peretz, M. Mocher-Sforim. Gorshman collaborated with the State Publishing House for Literature (Goslitizdat), the publishing house Der Emes, the State Publishing House of Children’s Literature (Detgiz), publishing houses Sovetskaya Literatura (“Soviet Literature”) and Molodaya Gvardia.

Gorshman was a member of the society Four Arts (1928–1929), the Society of Book Artists (since 1930). In 1930–1932 he also was a member of Moscow Regional Union of Soviet Artists (MOSSKh, since1932) and the Society of Easel Artists (OST), but did not participate in exhibitions of this movement.

In the first half of 1930s, on the instructions of the All-Russian co-operative society Khudozhnik (“Artist”), Gorshman made several trips in order to gather material for his creative work to collective farms of the Crimea (Evpatoria region), east regions of the country (Birobidzhan), Donbass, and fishing state farms of the Caspian Sea. After travelling Gorshman painted watercolors, gouaches, drawings and lithographs on genre themes, and series of landscapes and portraits. During the trip to the Crimea, he worked in a creative team with M. M. Akselrod, L. Zevin, L. A. Zholtkevich (1930–1931). At the commune Vojo Novo, in the Evpatoria region of the Crimea, Gorshman began a large series of easel watercolors Crimean Jewish collective farms (1930–1933), dedicated to the life of Jewish settlers. In 1930 at the commune he met his future wife Shira — later well-known Jewish writer Sh. Gorshman.

In mid 1930s he created graphic series Birobidzhan (1934) and Donbass (1935).

Gorshman lectured at the Higher Art Technical Institute (VKhUTEIN) in Leningrad (assistant lecturer in drawing at the faculty of painting, 1929–1930) and at Moscow State Academic Art Institute (1937–1941).

Together with M. Akselrod, Gorshman took part in the 1st All-Belorussian art exhibition in Minsk (1925) and in the exhibition of Russian Graphic Art in Riga (1929). At the first exhibition of graphic art, organized by the Association of Graphic Artists at the House of Press (1926, Moscow), Gorshman exposed caricatures and drawings, created by the order of the journal Bezbozhnik u Stanka.

Gorshman participated in many exhibitions: exhibition of the group Four Arts (1928, Leningrad; 1929, Moscow); the Exhibition of etching and drawing of the masters from Armenia, Belorussia, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine (1928, Kiev); the first travelling exhibition of paintings and drawings (1929, Moscow); Exhibition of works of artists, sent on a mission to the regions of industrial building and collective farms (1931, Moscow); the exhibition 15 years of the Red Army (1933, Moscow); Artists of the RSFSR for 15 years (1932, Leningrad, 1933, Moscow); summary exhibition of works of artists, sent on a mission through the USSR in 1933 by the Soviet of the People’s Commissars (Sovnarkom), by the National commissariat of education (Narkompros), by the All-Russian co-operative society Vsekokhudozhnik (“Artist”) and by Moscow Regional Union of Soviet Artists (MOSSKh, 1934, Moscow); the Sixth Exhibition of the Union of Moscow Artists; the exhibition Industry of Socialism(both — 1939, Moscow); the exhibition of the best works of Soviet artists (1941 , Moscow), All-Union Art Exhibitions (1946, 1955, 1957–1958, Moscow), the exhibition of painting, sculpture, graphic art and works of theatre and cinema artists in Moscow and Leningrad (1955, Moscow) and etc.

Gorshman was a participant of foreign exhibitions: Artistic and handicraft exhibition of the USSR (1929, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Detroit), exhibition of Russian Art (1929, Winterthur, Switzerland), the exhibition Graphics and book art in the USSR(1929, Amsterdam), exhibition of Soviet graphic art and book (1930, London), exhibition of graphics, drawing, poster and book (1930, Danzig), the Third International Exhibition of Etching (1930–1931, Philadelphia), exhibition of Soviet graphic art, book, poster and photography (1933, Paris), the exhibition of Soviet graphic art (1945, London) and etc.

In 1939 Gorshman created the panel for the Far East pavilion at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition.

In 1941 Gorshman was evacuated to Kyrgyzstan, where he headed a team of artists at the Kirghiz Telegraph Agency. He painted portraits, landscapes, made sketches of the production processes.

In 1940s–1960s Gorshman continued to work in the field of book illustration, mostly in the technique of autolithography. In last years of life he created a large gallery of portraits and self-portraits.

Personal exhibitions of Michael Gorshman were held in 1966 and in 1977 in Moscow.

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