Efimov Boris Efimovich
Pseudonyms,autonyms and aliases: Fridlyand 1900–2008

EFIMOV (Fridlyand), Boris Yefimovich

15 сентября 1900 (Kiev) — 1 октября 2008 (Moscow)

graphic designer

the Brother of journalist and satirist М. Е. Кольцова. Studied at the real school in Bialystok, Kharkiv technical school, at the law faculty of Kyiv University (1917-1918). Formal art education is not received. Studied drawing yourself; to a vocational school in białystok, together with his brother published a manuscript school journal, which was accompanied by his own illustrations.

In 1918 he made his debut as a cartoonist caricatures А. А. Блока placed in the Kiev magazine "the Spectator". In 1919 he held the post of Secretary-editorial-издательского Department of the people's Commissariat for military Affairs of the Soviet Ukraine. Collaborated in Ukrainian Newspapers and magazines: "Kommunar", "Bolshevik", "News".

In 1922 he moved to Moscow. The same year he started drawing caricatures devoted to the most important events of international life for Newspapers "Pravda", "Izvestia"; collaborated in the newspaper "Red star", the magazines "Crocodile", "Light", "Freak". Published albums: "Political cartoons" (M., 1924 and 1931), "Caricature in the service of defense of the USSR" (М. — L., 1931), "the Face of the enemy" (M., 1931), "the Output will be found" (М. — L., 1932), "Political cartoons. 1924-1934" (M., 1935), "Fascism — enemy of the people" (Leningrad, 1937), "the Fascist interventionists in Spain" (Moscow, 1937), "warmongers" (М. — L., 1938), "Hitler and his pack. Cartoons 1942-1943" (М. — L., 1943), "Mr. dollar" (M., 1948), "For lasting peace, against the warmongers" (M., 1950), "Satire is not without humor" (M., 1960 and 1963) and others.

Studied the poster. He headed the Department of graphic agitation Yugrosta in Odessa (1920). Collaborated in "Kiev — Yugrosta" (1920-1921), the "TASS Windows" (1941-1945), creative-производственном Association "Agitplakat" (from 1963 — artist, 1965 — chief editor). Created posters: "Denikin destroyed. The queue for the Polish panstwo", "Gentry-бурлаки" (both — 1920), "Fighter war" (1941) and others.

Designed books for the state publishing house, publishing houses "Soviet writer", "Truth" and others. He drew illustrations to the books "Komsomol" А. И. Безыменского (1924), "Favorite humorous stories" М. М. Зощенко (1925), "Fables" (1936) and "Familiar faces" (1950) Д. Бедного "Cheerful stories" (1945), "War war" (1951) С. В. Михалкова, "Spanish diary" М. Е. Кольцова (1957), "Satirical verses, epigrams, tales" С. Я. Маршака (1958). Tried his hand in arts-декорационного arts in Theatre. Е. Вахтангова ("Crawfish" С. В. Михалкова; 1953), Theatre. The city Council ("Who laughs last" К. Крапивы; 1954), the Central theater of the Soviet army ("Titanic-вальс" Т. Мушатеску; 1956). He worked at the Studio "Soyuzmultfilm".

In 1945-1946 as an artist-корреспондента the newspaper "Red star" was present at the Nuremberg trials and executed series (pencil and ink) portrait sketches of the main participants. The author of a series of satirical drawings, "They don't lie to entangle the peoples" (1951), "the imperialism of the period of sunset" (1961), "those who went to Moscow" (1964-1965), "From the satirical archive" (1967), "Historical background" (1972), "a Satirical Zoology" (1973-1975).

From 1925 — participant of exhibitions (group "L on Armenia" ("Spider") in Paris). Exhibited "War and art" in Leningrad, "Socialist art today" in Amsterdam (both — 1930), "Poster at the service of the five-year plan", "Caricature in the service of socialist construction" in Moscow (both — 1932) and others.

the Author's memoirs, books and articles on art. For his activity was awarded the title of honored art worker of the RSFSR (1932), people's artist of the RSFSR (1959) people's artist of the USSR (1967), member-корреспондента (1954) and member (since 1975) of the USSR Academy of arts. The winner of the State (Stalin) prize in 1950, 1951 and 1972. He was buried at Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow.

Efimov — outstanding master Patriotic and satirical graphics; along with the Kukryniksy, В. Н. Дени, Д. С. Мором that is one of the founders of the Soviet political caricature, which, on the one hand, opposed to social injustice, fascism, war, other — was a "tool" of ideological propaganda. Efimov has actively participated in all political campaigns of the Soviet government: the fight against "social-фашистами" (social-демократическими parties of the West), the Trotskyists, baharestani, cosmopolitan, geneticists, doctors-убийцами, "enemy voices" (radio stations of Western Europe, USA), and the like.

Efimov's Works are in major Museum collections, including the State Tretyakov gallery, the Pushkin Museum im. А. С. Пушкина and others.

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