Gabo Naum Abramovich
Pseudonyms,autonyms and aliases: Pevzner, Neemiah, Nehamiah, Borisovich, Berkovich 1890–1977

Gabo (Pevsner), Naum (Nehemiah, Nechama) Abramovich (B., Berkovich)

August 5, 1890 (Bryansk) - August 23, 1977 (Uoterberri, Conn., USA)

sculptor, painter, set designer, art theorist

Systematic arts education is not received. Studied at the gymnasium in Tomsk and Kursk. In 1910 he moved to Munich, where he studied medicine, natural sciences at the university, physics and mechanical engineering at the Polytechnic Institute. Simultaneously G. Wolfflin attended lectures in art history.

In 1912 he traveled to Italy, studied the art of old masters in Venice, Milan, Bologna and other cities. In 1913 and 1914 went to Paris, where he visited his brother Anton (Antoine) Pevsner - painter and sculptor. During the First World War he lived in his brother in Copenhagen, then Oslo. In those same years, began to insert itself into a sculpture, speaking under the pseudonym "Gabo".

In March 1917, together with his brother returned to Russia, he settled in Moscow. Was close VE Tatlin, Malevich, Rodchenko. In 1920, together with G. Klutsis arranged outdoor exhibition of sculpture at the Tver Boulevard and issued the "Realistic Manifesto, which outlined the" software "to install their art, in particular, defended the idea of" the depth and prosaic "as the unity of space and time, motion, and masses, but rejected the line size and color as a purely external, "picturesque" elements.

Engaged in easel and monumental sculpture, the designs of automobiles. In 1920, created the prototype of "Mobile" - a kinetic abstract sculpture, driven by an electric motor. Performed a series of transparent and translucent sculptures, structures with holes, the radio station project in Serpukhov, which developed the principles of "Realistic Manifesto».

In 1922 he went to Berlin, accompanied the first exhibition of Russian art, Soviet Russia has not returned. In Berlin, he joined the group "Style", led by T. Wang Duisburg and P. Mondrianom. Creatively in contact with the masters "Bauhauzha" L. Mies van der Rohe, V. Kandinsky, Klee, P., W. Gropius and others.

presented papers, participated in avant-garde exhibitions in Germany and Holland. In 1924, held in Paris gallery "Perseus exhibition" Russian Constructivists: Gabo, Pevsner ". In 1930, held his first solo exhibition "Constructivist plastic in Hanover.

In the late 1920's performed projects of monuments to the airport, the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, the project festive decoration of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. In 1931 participated in the competition for the project of the Palace of Soviets in Moscow.

as a theatrical decorator collaborated with entreprise Diaghilev, for which designed the ballet "Kitty" A. Gore.

In 1932-1935 he worked in Paris. He became one of the founders of the Union "Abstraction - Creation. In 1935 he moved to London, where he married an Englishwoman Mariam Israels. Held a solo exhibition in a London gallery (1938). Together with B. Nicholson and L. Martin published the magazine Circle (International Review constructivist art), which published articles about art and social aspects of constructivism.

In 1938, first visited the United States in connection with the organization of its exhibitions in Vudsvort Atheneum in Hartford and the gallery "J. Levy" in New York. After the Second World War finally moved to the United States. In 1952, took American citizenship.

in 1948 did a great retrospective exhibition (jointly with A. Pevzner) at New York's Museum of Modern Art, in 1951 - at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in 1953 - in gallery "P. ; Matisse "in New York.

for their work and creative work was awarded the prize fund and S. Guggenheim medal at the Art Institute of Chicago (1954), honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art, London (1967), Honorary Knight of the Order of the British Empire (1971); since 1965 - Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

In 1960-70's turned to painting and woodcuts. He has lectured on art at the faculty of architecture of various educational institutions, particularly at Harvard. In 1962 visited the Soviet Union, where the brothers visited - Mark, Eremeev, Alexey.

Gabo - eminent sculptor of the twentieth century, one of the pioneers of constructivism and kinetic art. In early works (1910) was influenced by cubism. In the early 1920's completely away from figurative art in the direction of abstraction. Its decorative sculptures, almost devoid of figurative elements - laconic and expressive, they are distinguished by the free play of forms and active interaction with the surrounding space. A creative handwriting of the master is diverse: from the shocking disharmony to strict staring upward or symmetric spherical forms, from the air tracks formed by the intersection of the set of threads stretched to heavy construction. In his works with a wide range of techniques and materials: use of aluminum, steel, phosphate gilt bronze, marble, wood, cardboard, plexiglass, acrylic, nylon thread, lyutsit.

Creativity Gabo represented in many museum collections including the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Museum Shtedel (Städel) in Frankfurt, Tate Gallery in London and elsewhere.

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