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Куинджи, Архип Иванович
Articles about the artist:
Kuindzhi Arkhip I.
painter and graphic artist.
Born into a poor family of a craftsman, a shoemaker, a native of Greece. Original art education was in the studio IKAivazovsky in Feodosia, where he studied under the guidance of Assistant Ayvazovski A. Faessler. In the late 1850's - early 1860's he worked as a retoucher in photographic workshops Mariupol, Odessa and St. Petersburg. In 1868, apparently went to IAH as volnoprihodyaschego student. In the same year for his film "The Tatar village in the moonlight on the southern coast of Crimea", presented at the Academic exhibition, was promoted neklassnogo (free), painter. In 1872, for the painting "Autumn slush", "Balaam" and "Lake" was the title of class artist of the 3rd degree in 1878 for the painting "On the island of Valaam", "Chumatski tract in Mariupol", "Ukrainian night", "Steppe" recognized as the class artist 1-st degree.
Many traveled to Russia, was a frequent visitor to Ukraine, the Caucasus, in Crimea. In 1874 made a trip to Europe, visited France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, in 1875 - France 1878 - France again, where he visited the World Exhibition in Paris.
In 1875 joined TPHV, participated in exhibitions of the Association until 1879. Released from the association in 1880 after a critical article by M. Klodt about his paintings, the exhibition presented at the VII association. In 1880 he spent in Paris and St. Petersburg exhibition of one painting - "Moonlit Night on the Dnieper River, which caused controversy in society and brought the artist fame and financial success. In 1882 he organized in Moscow and St. Petersburg exhibition of paintings "Moonlit Night on the Dnieper River" and "Birch Grove in the morning».
In 1883, withdrew its participation in exhibitions, but continued to actively engage in creative and social activities. Organized monetary fund in IAH, aims to support poor students.
In 1880 - 1890 was a permanent member of assembly of artists and scientists from the Mendeleyev. Under the leadership of Mendeleev and physicist FF Petrushevskaya studied the effect of light on the properties of painting.
In 1892 he was awarded the title of professor. In the same year, led by landscape workshop Higher Art School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture at IAH. Among his pupils - Nicholas Roerich, AA Borisov, KF Bogaevsky, VI Zarubin, A. A . Rylov and others. In 1893 the artist was elected a member of the IAH. In 1897, left teaching at the Academy, but took an active part in the fate of their pupils: the summer months he worked with them at his dacha in the Crimea in 1898 at his own expense arranged for them to travel to Germany, Austria and France.
in 1904 initiated a contest "for outstanding works of art" at the spring shows in IAH, contributing a bonus fund 100 thousand rubles. In the same year donated the Society for the Encouragement of Arts 11 700 rubles to pay bonuses for landscape painting.
in 1909 on the initiative of students Kuindzhi and with its assistance to bring together artists and helping them was the Society of Artists, has received the name Kuindzhi (lasted until 1929). Kuindzhi sacrificed in favor of the Company's 150 thousand rubles, and bequeathed all his wealth and artistic heritage (the collection after the dissolution of the Company was transferred to the State Russian Museum).
Memorial Exhibition masters held in St. Petersburg (1913) and Moscow (1914). A retrospective exhibition of works Kuindzhi was organized in 1992 in the State Tretyakov Gallery.
Kuindzhi - an outstanding Russian painter of the second half of the XIX century, the representative of the realistic school, whose work and social activities had a significant influence on the subsequent development of the art landscape. His works are imbued with a romantic attitude toward nature and delicate lyricism. The artist has developed its own recognizable style of painting, a feature which is extremely precise, sometimes almost illusory transfer of light-air environment, the effects of the lunar or solar lighting, rich, intense colors, reduced to a few main tones. To create panoramic views used different compositional devices, in particular the high horizon. Late master's works are inherent decorative and external system of colors.
Kunidzhi repeatedly varied and repeated the most popular motifs of his paintings. Many of his paintings over time have lost the original freshness and intensity of color due to the non-painting technology.
Kuindzhi works are in many museum collections, among them - the State Tretyakov Gallery, State Russian Museum, Yaroslavl Art Museum, Museum of Russian Art in Kiev, Simferopol Art Museum and others.
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